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Instructions:
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Number of Pages: 1
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Instructions:
A written collage (mix it up)
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Instructions:
10 pages ,15 recources on how some aspects of the brain,genetics,neurobiology,or a related physical process affects family functioning.
Number of Pages: 10
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Number of Sources: 15
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Instructions:
Self-evaluation paper .After particapating in Mock therapy session students will write an evaluationof their performance.They will assess areas of strenght and areas for improvement.They will describe how the information they gathered woud effect the course of treatment. Writing quality is clear and smooth. Proper use of APA style includes title page, running head, and citations if necessary. . Assessment of Strengths Points: 5 . Assessment describes insight and awareness into therapeutic strengths when evaluating culture. .Assessment of Growth Areas. Points: 5 . Assessment describes insight and awareness into therapeutic growth areas when evaluating culture. .Description of Adjustment of Therapy . Points: 5 . Description of how the information gathered on culture would impact the course of treatment is insightful and meaningful.
Number of Pages: 2
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Chapters 5 and 6 in Bridges not Walls utilize the metaphor of inhaling and exhaling to explore interpersonal communication. Applying material from the various essays, explore the two concepts and explain how they further our understanding of interpersonal communication from the beginning chapters. What role does listening play in the inhaling or exhaling process? We are using the book Bridges without walls by John stewart
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I need to write about: The Role of Violence in the Lives of Adolescents in the South Bronx. This article is by Nicholas Freudenberg,Lynn Roberts. this article is at http://heb.sagepub.com/content/26/6/788. or www.sagepublication.com. I just need a 2 page essay on this article. With a good heading and an A+ paper.
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Does Susan Glaspell's play "Trifles" qualify as 'feminist' literature? Defend your answer
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Does Susan Glaspell's play "Trifles" qualify as 'feminist' literature? Defend your answer
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Number of Sources: 3
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Instructions:
Does Susan Glaspell's play "Trifles" qualify as 'feminist' literature? Defend your answer
Number of Pages: 3
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Number of Sources: 1
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Instructions:
1pg response to Wolff ("Say Yes") 1pg response to Steinbeck ("The Chrysanthemums") 1pg response Porter ("The Jilting of Granny Weatherall")
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Using Microsoft Word, prepare a document in APA format that discusses 2 peer reviewed journal articles relating to one of these subjects. Suggestions: Price elasticity and total revenue Cross price elasticity Substitutes and complements Income elasticity Normal and inferior goods Marginal revenue The Individual Work assignment must be 3 pages in length. References must have 2 peer reviwed articles.
Number of Pages: 1
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Number of Sources: 2
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Instructions:
Using Microsoft Word, prepare a document in APA format that discusses 2 peer reviewed journal articles relating to one of these subjects. Suggestions: Price elasticity and total revenue Cross price elasticity Substitutes and complements Income elasticity Normal and inferior goods Marginal revenue The Individual Work assignment must be 3 pages in length. References must have 2 peer reviwed articles.
Number of Pages: 3
Spacing: Double Spaced
Number of Sources: 2
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Academic Level: University
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Instructions:
Chapter 14 Discussion: Divorce, Remarriage, and Widowhood Are divorce and remarriage more difficult for women or for men? Explain. Compare and contrast the psychological consequences of divorce and widowhood. Your discussion posting should be between 350-400 words for each question
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I need Two Reflicitve Journals One from the book Listening by Madelyn Burley- Allen Chapters 3 and 4 only.... Then one from the Book Bridges Not Walls by JOhn Stewart chapter 5 and 6 only... You only have to do only page for each RJ.
Number of Pages: 2
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Earlier this week we had write on the discussion board about inhaling and exhaling commuciation. We are reading Bridges Not Walls by John Stewart. Now we have to reply to two students. The replies only have to be about 250 words for each reply. Here is a copy of the first students paper. I found it rather interesting that Stewart used the metaphor of inhaling and exhaling when referring to communication. Breathing is something that is required for general survival. One is capable of making it for days without food and water, but most people can only last a few minutes without breathing. This train of thought makes one wonder if the same goes for communication. Obviously one can survive for long periods of time without communicating with others, but I would surmise that over time one would lose the ability to relate with people. Stewart uses the metaphor of inhaling to refer to the receptive part of communication. He first comments on perceptions and how we use them to shape the world around us. “Your perceptions influence and contribute to the inhaling process in profound ways. You select sensory cues, organize them mentally, and make inferences about them” (Stewart, 2012 p. 163). The military is all about perception. I have often told my young Lts that perception is reality. I had a female Lt on my deployment in 2011 who was great girl, hard working and super out going. Unfortunately her outgoingness worked against her. Everyone though that she was sleeping with about every guy on the base. I had to sit her down on several occasions and explain to here that it didn’t matter if she was not doing anything wrong, the perception across the FW of who she was over came everything good that she did. In honesty if we had not had an awesome Commander who was able to correct the perception, the entire deployment could have ended badly for her regardless of all the good she accomplished while stationed at that base. This story is good examples of how perceptions are someone’s view though a particular lens and not a window (Stewart, 2012 p. 163). In chapter six Stewart uses the metaphor of exhaling to represent the output portion of communication. Communication is mandatory for one to have a good and effective relationship with someone. A big portion of this kind of communication is just being open with others. “Self-disclosure is revealing to another person how you perceive and are reacting to the present situation and giving any information about yourself and your past that is relevant to an understanding of your perceptions and reactions to the present” (Stewart, 2012 p. 211). One of the benefits of disclosure wraps into my previous paragraph about perceptions. Disclosing ourselves to others tends to reciprocate a similar reaction from those we interact with which allows one to validate their perception of reality though the information gathered from those around us. Stewart, J. (2012). Bridges no walls. (11 ed., Vol. 1, pp. 77-82). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. here is the second students paper Good Evening From Wisconsin, I will be short with my response because I am very long winded when it comes to communication. The inhaling and exhaling factors are pretty much self-explanatory from the way how to words are perceived or used. The book was really good in interpreting communication. Communication is affected by three different points culture, membership of groups, and outside relationships with other people (Steward, 2012). Culture plays a huge role in communication because some gestures or words may offend the heritage of the group. For example, I just learned about some things in the Mexican culture, I work as a flight attendant also and I was told the reason why I don't get a response to questions that I ask the passengers "Would like a drink" is because most or on a cast system. The pilot, who is Mexican informed me that "most do not talk to the help." its sad to even go there but what may be right in one culture is terribly wrong in another. The membership of a person may have a influences on culture and communication. For example, I belong to the DFW hospital Council and sit on a couple of healthcare boards here in the States and in Clarendon, Jamaica but form the looks on the outside most just see a flight uniform. It is always best to becareful how you treat people because you don't know their real status. The examples that I use are not to brag but to show how communication outward communication by appearance can create stereotypes and misjudgment (Steward, 2012). The book goes on to say how there are 3 sub types of communication; selecting, organizing, inferring. The selecting phases just give us the choice of what to pay attention to. To me, it is more of our attentions span and the information that we chose to listen to. The organizing phases is the way how our brains is able to process the data that we receive from outside sources of stimuli. The last one is the inferring, this is the data processing center that we interpret and associate the information to make it familiar. These points all have a reasonable similarity to the bringing chapters of the book due to the art of how information, messages, and interpretation of data exchanges from one person to the next. We communicate so much differently now since my freshman speech class, texting, emails, and video conferencing. Communication is never face-to-face anymore. With my major being Health and wellness, I must learn the art of communicating. It is essential that I learn to communicate with patients very well if I want to to be successful. With inhaling there is exhaling, being willing to listen to the patients. The exhaling portion of the book is being open to express me side of the story and being willing to listen. I never knew the name for all of this. I always listen to other people but just to hear someone one out may save lives. The portion that I have a problem with is being open to talk to others about problems that I have because to me "no one understand the fears and challenges that "I go through." I can say that I am a terrific listener. These books are really getting me to think about life a little more deeper. How about yal'l. Take care and be in good health. Stewart, J (2012), Bridges Not Walls: A Book About Interpersonal Communication, University of Dubuque, New York, NY
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This personal essay will require citation from one essay and will allow you to practice your basic writing skills. You will read the essays from the “Classic Arguments” section and make your own argument about a topic based on your personal experiences and those of your friends and family members. You want to avoid obvious arguments, especially clichés. Focus on a specific subject, brought up in the essays, that interests you. Your paper will include an interesting title, attention-getting introduction, clear thesis, body paragraphs giving specific details about the problem and solution, and a conclusion.
Number of Pages: 5
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Number of Sources: 4
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Instructions:
This personal essay will require citation from one essay and will allow you to practice your basic writing skills. You will read the essays from the “Classic Arguments” section and make your own argument about a topic based on your personal experiences and those of your friends and family members. You want to avoid obvious arguments, especially clichés. Focus on a specific subject, brought up in the essays, that interests you. Your paper will include an interesting title, attention-getting introduction, clear thesis, body paragraphs giving specific details about the problem and solution, and a conclusion.from the book Rottenberg, A. T., & Winchell, D. H. (2012). Elements of argument: A text and reader (10th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.
Number of Pages: 5
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Number of Sources: 4
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Instructions:
This personal essay will require citation from one essay from the book Rottenberg, A. T., & Winchell, D. H. (2012). Elements of argument: A text and reader (10th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s. and will allow you to practice your basic writing skills. You will read the essays from the “Classic Arguments” section and make your own argument about a topic based on your personal experiences and those of your friends and family members. You want to avoid obvious arguments, especially clichés. Focus on a specific subject, brought up in the essays, that interests you. Your paper will include an interesting title, attention-getting introduction, clear thesis, body paragraphs giving specific details about the problem and solution, and a conclusion.
Number of Pages: 5
Spacing: Double Spaced
Number of Sources: 4
Urgency:
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Academic Level: University
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Instructions:
This personal essay will require citation from one essay from the book Rottenberg, A. T., & Winchell, D. H. (2012). Elements of argument: A text and reader (10th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s. and will allow you to practice your basic writing skills. You will read the essays from the “Classic Arguments” section and make your own argument about a topic based on your personal experiences and those of your friends and family members. You want to avoid obvious arguments, especially clichés. Focus on a specific subject, brought up in the essays, that interests you. Your paper will include an interesting title, attention-getting introduction, clear thesis, body paragraphs giving specific details about the problem and solution, and a conclusion.
Number of Pages: 5
Spacing: Double Spaced
Number of Sources: 4
Urgency:
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Academic Level: University
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Instructions:
Subject is: Panic Attacks Research in psychology. Required at least 2 professional articles or books that discuss the person's work on panic attacks. Professional web pages such as www.apa.org or www.nimh.nih.gov Paper should reflect your critical thinking and evaluation of the material. Critique the theories or the quality of the research, what you think are the most promising directions in the area of the research, what you think are the most promising directions in the area reviewed and why. Paper should have: 1. a paragraph summary of each article in your own words. 2. Do you agree or disagree with the author or the research. If agree, why. 3. How could this research you read be improved. What aspect of the topic is missing. Suggest other applications for this research.
Number of Pages: 4
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Number of Sources: 4
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Should be a two page compare and contrast essay on how Arnold,in"Where are you going?Where have you been?" changes the way Connie views the world around her in as much the way the swimsuit clad girls in"A&P change Sammy's view of the world around him.
Number of Pages: 3
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Number of Sources: 3
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Instructions:
ggggggggggggg
Number of Pages: 1
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ggggggggggggg
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Instructions:
Discuss cultural difference between euro-Americans and indigenous peoples (indians) cite specific readings from peter nabokows book:native American testimony
Number of Pages: 4
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Number of Sources: 2
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To complete this assignment you will use LIRN (Library and Information Resources Network) – or any data base that contain peer reviewed articles. Write a summary /overall review of two to three peer-reviewed journal articles related to concepts of managerial economics. The subject is Economies and diseconomies of scale. Using Microsoft Word, prepare a document in APA format that discusses the topic you selected. The Individual Work assignment must be 3 to 4 pages in length. Reference all sources using APA format.
Number of Pages: 3
Spacing: Double Spaced
Number of Sources: 2
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Instructions:
To complete this assignment you will use LIRN (Library and Information Resources Network) – or any data base that contain peer reviewed articles. Write a summary /overall review of two to three peer-reviewed journal articles related to concepts of managerial economics. The subject is Economies and diseconomies of scale. Using Microsoft Word, prepare a document in APA format that discusses the topic you selected. The Individual Work assignment must be 3 to 4 pages in length. Reference all sources using APA format.
Number of Pages: 3
Spacing: Double Spaced
Number of Sources: 2
Urgency:
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Academic Level: University
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Instructions:
write a summary /overall review of two to three peer-reviewed journal articles related to concepts in the Managerial Economics chapter(s) covered this week. Using Microsoft Word, prepare a document in APA format that discusses the journal articles you selected. Suggested topics are listed below but you are free to select any journal articles from LIRN that relate to a topic from the material covered this week. Suggestions: • General demand function • General supply function • Shortages and surpluses • Ceiling and floor prices (price controls) The Individual Work assignment must be 3 pages long double spaced. Use any ONE of these suggestions.
Number of Pages: 3
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Number of Sources: 1
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Components: This project consists of two major activities: 1. Conducting secondary research (i.e. library, Internet, Proquest, etc) 2. Writing a research paper in which you compute the financial ratios yourself The Project to be Addressed by the Paper: You have just graduated from an MBA program and have secured a position as a fund manager for Wells Fargo securities division. You have been given $300 million to manage/invest. The fund is a pension/retirement fund so its perspective is long term with moderate risk of loss of capital and a required return of 9% per annum. In order to reduce the investment risk, you are instructed to make 12 investments of $25 million dollars each. Your first assignment is to determine if the fund you are managing should invest $25 million dollars in the stock of the company you have selected for your first analysis/investment decision. Your decision to invest or not invest will be supported by the research paper. Your analysis will address each of the following: 1. Business Strategy Analysis: Develop an understanding of the business and competitive strategies of the company. Which of the three generic competitive strategies does it utilize (low cost provider, differentiation, or focus)? This should be covered in not more than three paragraphs. Do not spend time writing a history of the company. This is an analysis, not a history lesson. 2. Accounting Analysis: Do the accounting practices adopted by the company generally reflect an accurate picture of the economic performance of the company? Did your research find any public announcements of restatement of earnings or other financial statements that would indicate that the financial statements may be of dubious value? This can be done by reviewing the company's 8K filings with the SEC (a mandatory requirement for this paper). These filings can generally be found on the company's website under Investor Relations - SEC filings. 3. Financial Analysis: Analyze financial ratios and cash flow measures of the company relative to its historical performance. For purposes of this research paper, a two-year look back is sufficient and required. You must use at least 10 of the ratios noted on pages 48-58 (summarized on Table 3.6 on page 57 of your textbook), including all four of the profitability ratios. 4. Prospective Analysis: Develop forecasted performance measures and list the assumptions associated with your forecast. List your assumptions and reasons for your forecast. You may also cite the works of other analysts who have published forecasted earnings for the time frame you are addressing. (Hint: take a look at Yahoo/finance - analysts opinion.) 5. Conclusion: Will you or will you not invest $25 million in this particular Company? Support your conclusion? Remember a negative conclusion is just as valid and valuable as a positive conclusion. Conducting Library Research: 1. Conduct a search for sources that offer accurate information on your company. A minimum of six legitimate and valid relevant resources are required. 2. Avoid general Internet key word searches. Wikipedia and other unauthorized sources are inappropriate for graduate work. Articles noting up to date information from such sources as The Wall Street Journal, Barron’s, or Business Week may be useful in addressing the appropriateness of current strategies, resource pricing, etc. given market conditions or the status of competitors. Writing the Paper: The following are general guidelines for format and organization. 1. Format: a. Minimum of ten pages (including self-prepared exhibits), with numbered pages b. Typed, double-spaced c. New Times Roman (i.e. business) font, 12 point d. Margins – 1 inch e. Include boldface headings and subheadings f. Use in-text citations as appropriate per APA style guidelines 2. Organization: a. Cover page – Name of paper, your name, course number and name, date submitted, per APA style guidelines b. Introduction – A brief statement of the purpose of the paper and explanation of its organization. You are welcome to use pseudonyms for the name of the company or individuals addressed in the paper. c. Analysis – Address four concepts noted above d. Summary – A brief statement combining the findings arising from the analysis e. Conclusion/Recommendations – Should you invest or not invest the $25 million? Why or why not? f. References page per APA style guidelines
Number of Pages: 10
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Number of Sources: 3
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Instructions:
critique analysis 1 break down the argument 2 critique the articles assumptions 3 identify the articles audience 4 assess the effectiveness of the overall argument
Number of Pages: 3
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Number of Sources: 1
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Instructions:
critique analysis 1 break down the argument 2 critique the articles assumptions 3 identify the articles audience 4 assess the effectiveness of the overall argument
Number of Pages: 3
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Number of Sources: 1
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Instructions:
discuss cultral difference between euro-Americans and American indians from 1620 on 1) cite specific readings from peter nabokows book: native american testimony (1999)
Number of Pages: 4
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Number of Sources: 2
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Instructions:
Discuss the relationship between the early development of attachment in infancy and attachment as it appears in adulthood. Consider the adult's representation of attachments. How does this affect intimacy?
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Discuss the relationship between the early development of attachment in infancy attachment theory and attachment as it appears in adulthood attachment theory. Consider the adult's representation of attachments. How does this affect intimacy? For the Human development class.Book Pamela Blewitt.Third edition.Chapter 12.
Number of Pages: 1
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Number of Sources: 1
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**To complete this assignment you will use Peer reviewed Articles Find and write a summary / overall review of two to three peer-reviewed journal articles that are appropriate for concepts in the Managerial Economics chapter(s) covered this week. Note: The GALE InfoTrac databases and the ProQuest collection are especially useful when searching for economics / business resources. Using Microsoft Word, prepare a document in APA format that discusses Government Regulation of the Market. The Individual Work assignment must be 3 double spaced pages in length.
Number of Pages: 3
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Number of Sources: 2
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Instructions:
Please rework the attched assignment 2 document to follow the paper named 'sample' that is also attached. I need this by Saturday, November 24. I want additional references that back up solutions to the problem of language barrier in nursing.The format must be similar
Number of Pages: 4
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Number of Sources: 10
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Instructions:
write a persuasive research essay with pro an con argument on afghanistan why we should departor not
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Number of Sources: 3
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Instructions:
Your detailed outline will provide the skeletal framework for your completed project. The four major headings should be Introduction, Method, Findings, and Discussion. Provide specifics describing what will occur in each heading and subheading of your paper. For each major heading, you should include several descriptive sentences or a short descriptive paragraph. For minor subheadings, a sentence or two is sufficient. If you know which articles will be included in each section, indicate this in your detailed outline. Your detailed outline should be organized in the following manor: Place your working title at the top. Start the introduction section by briefly describing the topic, problem, and questions regarding the policy you intend to explore in your project. Very briefly summarize the literature review. Suggest the gap in knowledge that you intend to address by your own research. The method section should briefly describe how you intend to conduct your research, which in this course project are the three interviews. In your research section, you should: State briefly how you will select, access, and conduct the interviews. Remember you may interview only professionals, experts, administrators, or staff connected with the policy you are studying. The information about the interviewee needs to remain confidential-no names, agency name, or city that could identify the individual should be included. List the questions that you will be asking. Note: You are not conducting the interview at this time. Your outline should only describe who you would like to interview and the questions that you intend to ask. Your instructor will review and approve the questions prior to any implementation. Complying with IRB requirements, avoid any sensitive questions that might embarrass, offend, or implicate anyone in anything. Example questions include: How did the policy or program come into effect? What role did research and scholarship play in the formulation of the policy? What specific needs or issues was it designed to address? How were these needs identified? How did research influence the identification of the need? What societal changes does the policy seek to institute? What discriminatory practices related to gender, race, and sexual orientation might have affected the design, implementation, and assessment of the policy or program? What roles and responsibilities do practitioner-scholars have in relation to this policy or program? How has the policy been progressing, changing, and adapting to the real world? How has it been evaluated and with what results? How has evaluation research affected the program as an ongoing entity? How can the policy or program be improved? The findings section should lay out how you intend to report what you discover through your research. You should offer three to five subheadings with short sentences clarifying what you intend to cover in each category. These should correlate and reflect the kind of questions you ask of the subjects that were specified in the methods section. Finally, in the discussion section, state that you will summarize your key findings. State that you will suggest a theory or explanation that could account for your findings. (You could suggest which theory you might use.) Indicate that you will compare your findings to elements of the literature review. State that you will explore avenues for further research regarding this policy. And state that you will offer suggestions for improvement in this policy. I WOULD LIKE TO COVER THE REFORM POLICY, I WILL ALSO UPLOAD A PAPER REGARDING REFORM THAT I JUST WRITTEN A FEW WEEKS AGO. I WILL NEED THIS PAPER WRITTEN ASAP.
Number of Pages: 2
Spacing: Double Spaced
Number of Sources: 1
Urgency:
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Article Summary. I will provide the article. Summary must follow the rules of APA documentation. You must not include personal opinion in the article. Paper should reflect the content of the article, not be an evaluation or review of the article or an examination of your agreement or disagreement with the article
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Dear client, Place the order and specify the deadline as, which is 1 month, deadline 01/15/13. The number of pages will be 2 pages for the first part, 2 pages for the second part and 10 pages for the last part, we will deliver the order in parts before the deadlines specified and the final part will be sent on 01/15/13. Thank you Best regards Carol ***If there are any questions please email or call me 253-670-0337 as this is a critical assignment*** Part 1: Outline of Research Project Assignment should be 2 - 3 pages in length. The course project has three distinct phases. Each separate assignment is due as indicated in the bullets below. The final project applies the knowledge acquired as described by the four course outcomes for this course. Final project assignment: Using the market structures theory, compare and contrast the factors that influence and determine how managerial decisions are made for a firm or industry that operates in an environment that is considered to be highly competitive (Pure Competition or Monopolistic Competition) versus a firm or industry that operates in a more highly concentrated environment (Oligopoly or Pure Monopoly) where a few firms or a single firm dominates. Note: Firm or industry specific information or data is not required. The course project is intended to illustrate how the concepts and theories covered in this course apply in general to various industrial organizations as categorized by market structure. DUE DATES FOR DELIVERABLES: 12/21/12 - Outline of research project. Assignment should be 2 - 3 pages in length. 01/08/13 - Annotated bibliography of journal articles reviewed in preparation for the final paper. 01/15/13 - Final paper due. Note: the final paper will be 8 to 10 pages, must include a minimum of 3 to 5 quality peer reviewed journal articles. APA required. Part 2: Annotated bibliography of journal articles reviewed in preparation for the final paper The course project has three distinct phases. Each separate assignment is due as indicated in the bullets below. The final project applies the knowledge acquired as described by the four course outcomes for ECP5705. Final project assignment: Using the market structures theory, compare and contrast the factors that influence and determine how managerial decisions are made for a firm or industry that operates in an environment that is considered to be highly competitive (Pure Competition or Monopolistic Competition) versus a firm or industry that operates in a more highly concentrated environment (Oligopoly or Pure Monopoly) where a few firms or a single firm dominates. Note: Firm or industry specific information or data is not required. The course project is intended to illustrate how the concepts and theories covered in this course apply in general to various industrial organizations as categorized by market structure. REMAINING DUE DATES FOR DELIVERABLES: • 01/08/13 - Annotated bibliography of journal articles reviewed in preparation for the final paper. • 01/15/13 - final paper due. Note: the final paper will be 8 to 10 pages, must include a minimum of 3 to 5 quality peer reviewed journal articles. APA required. Part 3: Final Paper The final paper will be 8 to 10 pages and must include a minimum of 3 to 5 quality peer reviewed journal articles, cited in APA styles. The course project has three distinct phases. Each separate assignment is due as indicated in the bullets below. The final project applies the knowledge acquired as described by the four course outcomes for ECP5705. Final project assignment: Using the market structures theory compare and contrast the factors that influence and determine how managerial decisions are made for a firm or industry that operates in an environment that is considered to be highly competitive (Pure Competition or Monopolistic Competition) versus a firm or industry that operates in a more highly concentrated environment (Oligopoly or Pure Monopoly) where a few firms or a single firm dominates. Note: Firm or industry specific information or data is not required. The course project is intended to illustrate how the concepts and theories covered in this course apply in general to various industrial organizations as categorized by market structure. REMAINING DUE DATES FOR DELIVERABLES: • 01/15/13 - final paper due. Note: the final paper will be 8 to 10 pages and must include a minimum of 3 to 5 quality peer reviewed journal articles, cited in APA style.
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Prepare a post that discusses the various types of intermediate sanctions. Identify and describe the most common forms of intermediate sanctions. Which ones are used in your state? How effective are these programs in reducing recidivism of offenders? Should public needs or offender needs be the focus of intermediate sanctions?
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The Martin Lee Anderson case contributed to the State of Florida's decision to close its boot camp programs. Prepare a post that discusses the effectiveness of boot camps. Was Florida premature in abandoning these programs? From your readings, what does the research indicate about the effectiveness of these programs?
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Identify and discuss three obstacles limiting the role and influence of research and scholarship in the creation and implementation of criminal justice policy. How might criminal justice practitioner-scholars seek to enhance their participation in policy process?
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Discuss how you as a practitioner-scholar conduct or will conduct yourself in a manner that promotes social equity, nondiscriminatory practices, and human rights in the course of your professional life in the field of criminal justice.
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Rehabilitation is one of the philosophical goals of corrections. Supporters contend that it is necessary if offenders are to be successful in community corrections or re-entry programs. Critics argue that the purpose of sentencing is to punish offenders and that possible benefits to offenders should not come at the expense of citizens. Discuss both sides of the argument and support your response with readings, content, and literature.
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Search Proquest to find and write a summary / overall review of two reviewed journal articles that relate to concepts in the Managerial Economics. Using Microsoft Word, prepare a document in APA format that discusses the *** Peer Reviewed journal articles*** you selected. Suggested topics are listed below but you are free to select any journal articles from LIRN or Proquest written about any of the topics below (I do not care which one as long as they are Economics based) • Dominated strategies • Game theory / prisoner's dilemma • Strategic behavior of oligopolists • Collusion • Barriers to entry The Individual Work assignment must be 3 pages in length. Reference all sources using APA format.
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Prepare a post that discusses the various types of intermediate sanctions. Identify and describe the most common forms of intermediate sanctions. Which ones are used in your state? How effective are these programs in reducing recidivism of offenders? Should public needs or offender needs be the focus of intermediate sanctions?
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How can anticipating future challenges benefit the criminal justice system? Discuss and evaluate the various methods criminal justice planners may employ to project unfolding and future crime patterns.
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Select a crime-related issue that is emerging or is rapidly growing as a significant potential threat to public safety and design a policy approach that would address this evolving phenomenon. How will the policy you propose affect the problem?
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Parole is the early release of an offender from an active prison sentence. High profile cases of violent and heinous crimes committed by offenders on parole and financial incentives for states to enact “Truth in Sentencing” laws led to many states abolishing parole. This in turn led to offenders being released to the community without any supervision or any incentive to not re-offend. As a result, re-entry programs have evolved, which largely mirror parole in that offenders are supervised and participate in rehabilitative programs.
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What can community corrections agencies and organizations do to pair with other criminal justice agencies to improve prison re-entry programs?
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PART I: You are required to write a research paper/formal literature review in APA format on one of the specific approaches to family counseling, (e.g., structural, psychoanalytic, Bowenian, experiential, etc.). You should have appropriate professional references, including books and journals that are written to or for professionals. You may use some non-professional materials however these may not be the bulk of your references. The format can follow the chapter format from the main text (Family Therapy) however, do not use the text as your primary reference. You will need a minimum of 12 sources in your reference page and therefore cited in the body of the paper. Part I of your paper requires a minimum of 6 pages in length, double-spaced; the paper must cover a style of family counseling covered in this course.
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I would like to do my paper on Structural Family Therapy. Below I have included the instructions to this paper. PART I: You are required to write a research paper/formal literature review in APA format on one of the specific approaches to family counseling, (e.g., structural, psychoanalytic, Bowenian, experiential, etc.). You should have appropriate professional references, including books and journals that are written to or for professionals. You may use some non-professional materials however these may not be the bulk of your references. The format can follow the chapter format from the main text (Family Therapy) however, do not use the text as your primary reference. You will need a minimum of 12 sources in your reference page and therefore cited in the body of the paper. Part I of your paper requires a minimum of 6 pages in length, double-spaced; the paper must cover a style of family counseling covered in this course.
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"The Storm (1898) by Kate Chopin" 2. Where does the story take place? 3. Who are the main characters? 4. What is the story about? 5. What is the conflict ? 6. What did you think of the story? Directly and completely answer the questions. Include specific examples from the story in your answer
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my topic about divorce, child custody and the resultant effects on society
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my topic about divorce, child custody and the resultant effects on society it must include two specific theories which explain the basis of the creation of divorce. it must include also the history and the people who impacted by divorce and how many people who experince divorce and the future prospects for resolving the societal factors associated with divorce and the current social policy response and the associated service delivery system which has been established to deal with the divorce
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Summarize the two articles I uploaded and correlate them with the essay subject which is RISK VERSUS UNCERTAINTY. This is an Economics assignment that needs to be absolutely plagiarsim free and original. This is a Masters level Economics assignment so utilize adequate verbage and puncuation. The point is to understand the risk in the business decision making process and how evaluation and risk management play a role. If possible use the writer that did my paper 500234 Articles: An emergent framework for supply chain risk management and performance measurement Changes in the "shape" of risk (ie sources, nature, triggers, scale, rapidity and severity of consequences) relating to supply chains pose challenges for risk management and the underpinning discipline domains such as Operations Research that have traditionally provided guidance and support. The aim is to evaluate these challenges, specifically in the context of supply chain risk management and to consider new approaches to support management. An overall Supply Chain Risk Management Framework is constructed, comprising five components - risk drivers, risk management influencers, decision maker characteristics, risk management responses and performance outcomes. The focus is towards the risk management influencers, recognizing that other components have been investigated elsewhere in the operations literature. Four elements are identified within this risk management component, two conventional elements, rewards and risks, and two new elements, timescale and portfolio effects. An empirical case example is employed to illustrate these issues of risk management in the manufacturing sector and to evaluate the approaches employed to manage risk and performance. The conclusion drawn is that the proposed Supply Chain Risk Management Framework with the inclusion of the risk management influencers component provides a more robust description of the factors that affect the nature of the risk management responses in particular situations. This also demonstrates the need for the Operations Research discipline to evolve a more diverse set of risk management tools and approaches (ie both quantitative and qualitative) to effectively address the diversity of issues and contexts. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT] Full Text • Translate Full textTranslate • Turn on search term navigationTurn on search term navigation Introduction Risk and Risk Management have become dominant features of the lexicon of today's management. Supply chain risk and its management are by no means novel problems for the manufacturing, retailing and services sectors. Managers are continuously being challenged to address an increasing variety of opportunities and risks at both the routine operational and the more novel strategic levels. Christopher and Lee (2004, p 388) conclude that 'there are many unexpected and unpredictable disruptions that add to the risks of a supply chain.' An important measure of management performance is the ability to successfully manage such risks. Operations Research and associated fields have in the past developed tools and analytical techniques designed to support the analysis and evaluation of risk and provide guidance for the decision maker (eg Quinn and Hilmer, 1994; Steele and Court, 1996; Michalski, 2000). Important questions are being raised about the value of such approaches to the changing decision contexts and problems involving risk. Zsidisin et al (2004, p 204) argue that few studies explore the key constructs necessary for assessing supply risk, concluding that 'risk assessment should only be one step within an organization's overall risk management strategy,' designed to create contingency plans as the supply risk increases. The aim of the paper is to evaluate these challenges posed by the changing supply chain context, specifically relating to supply chain risk management and to consider new approaches to support management. Classic supply chain risk management solutions such as the maintenance of buffer stocks, built-in slack in delivery lead times, excess profit margins to cover returns due to poor quality are becoming less viable in a world of JIT, MRP and ISO9000 where the requirements are built in to the contractual arrangements. Peck (2005, p 225) concludes that 'least cost optimization is all well and good in a stable and controllable environment, but in an uncertain world, satisficing may be a better way forward.' Similarly, Christopher and Lee (2004, p 389) argue that 'a supply chain with high risk cannot be efficient.' The increasing complexity of decision contexts, the involvement of a wider set of stakeholders and the availability of more information are some of the developments contributing to enhanced difficulties in formulating the problem situation prior to resolution. Finch (2004) argues that large companies' exposure to risk appeared to increase with inter-organizational networking and having SMEs as partners increased the risks for both partners in the supply chain. Allied to this thrust to manage risk more successfully is the call for improved metrics associated with risk and performance (eg Ambler, 2000). Researchers have suggested an appropriate approach to undertake a more radical review of risk and performance appraisal, possibly developing a series of proxy measures which may be applied simply and effectively to managing risks and business performance. Zsidisin et al (2004, p 410), for example, advocate 'proactive supply management tools, particularly those that focus on addressing supplier quality issues, improving supplier performance and preventing supply interruptions.' Others (eg Brindley and Ritchie, 2001) have gone further, suggesting that relationship building and partnering may provide more effective risk management solutions in the supply chain context, given the limitations of quantitative techniques in providing effective solutions. The structure of the paper comprises four main parts, defining terms, developing the conceptual framework, examining the application of the framework though an empirically based case and finally discussing the implications for the Supply Chain Risk Management Framework. The terms risk, uncertainty and supply chain are examined including the differentiating features of supply chains and their risks. The Supply Chain Risk Management Framework is constructed, employing five components, risk context and drivers, risk management influencers, decision maker characteristics, risk responses and performance outcomes. A more detailed examination of the risk management influencers is undertaken as this represents a novel feature of the conceptual framework. The application of the Framework and risk management solutions is evaluated in a manufacturing case setting derived from a longitudinal empirical study. Risk and uncertainty Attempts at defining the terms uncertainty and risk have spawned a large variation of approaches, evidence the broad themes emanating from various academic disciplines (Dowling and Staelin, 1994; Forlani and Mullins, 2000). Cavinato (2004) reflecting on the aspect of risk within supply chains observed that '[T]he definitions of risk have changed and broadened forever,' ascribing this to increasing unsystematic risks. Common features in the various paradigms relating to risk typically incorporate the issues of unpredictability, decision-making and potential loss. For example, Sitkin and Pablo (1992, p 9) define risk as 'the extent to which there is uncertainty about whether potentially significant and/or disappointing outcomes of decisions will be realised.' MacCrimon and Wehrung (1986) identified three components of risk: the magnitude of loss, the chance of loss and the potential exposure to loss. March and Shapira (1967) suggest that the reason that risks are taken or not depends on the variation in perception of such losses. Knight's (1921) definition of risk as the probability of incurring a loss is somewhat imbalanced in the context of commercial situations such as supply chains since most risky decisions are taken on the basis of generating a potential, though by no means certain, gain (Blume, 1971). Zsidisin et al (2004, p 397) provide a useful operational definition that 'risk is perceived to exist when there is a relatively high likelihood that a detrimental event can occur and that event has a significant associated impact or cost.' The working definition of risk employed in the paper suggests that risk is extant in all business situations by virtue of the context and the decisions taken. Decisions and actions taken by the business to improve performance or mitigate the extant risks may have consequences for performance, expressed in terms of perception of the likelihood of occurrence and the scale of the outcome (ie recognizing that not all outcomes may be detrimental and not all will be disastrous for the organization). Risk may be further classified into endogenous risks , those that are inherent within the situation itself and exogenous risks , those that impinge on the situation from outside. Classifying risks into the two categories simply indicates the source of the risk and does not indicate the nature, scale or manageability, though by implication endogenous risks may be perceived to be more manageable than those exogenous risks emanating from outside of the defined risk situation. Rowe (1977) defines uncertainty as the absence of information concerning the decision situation and the need to exercise judgment in determining or evaluating the situation, alternative solutions, possible outcomes etc. In practical terms, uncertainty often reflects the ambiguity surrounding the decision, possibly in terms of the precise nature of the situation, its causes, possible solutions and the reaction of other stakeholders to the implementation of the solution. It is perhaps important to recognize the integration and interaction between the terms risk and uncertainty (Ritchie and Marshall, 1993). Decision makers experiencing conditions of uncertainty may well perceive the decision situation as one of high risk, and although resolution of some elements of uncertainty may reduce their risk perception, it is unlikely that this would lead to the elimination of risk and may have minimal impact on the performance outcomes. Risk measurement Mitra et al (2003) poses three dilemmas facing the financial institution in relation to the sources and choice of appropriate risk metrics associated with portfolio management. Illustrating these within the supply chain management context suggests: Firstly, a decision is required on which type or category of risk to address and mitigate. Focusing attention on particular risk categories and seeking to mitigate these may distract attention and resources from managing other risks, a process that itself may produce an imbalanced approach within the portfolio. Strategies designed to minimize the disruption risks to the supply of critical components may risk alienating suppliers and distract attention from potential quality assurance and costing risks. Implicit in this dilemma is the recognition that typically organizations do not have the capacity to address all potential risks, and choices must be made on what are considered as the key risks in a given situation. Such choices must also reflect the dynamic situation in which most supply chain decisions are taken. Secondly, the decision concerning the appropriateness of the two main risk metric categories, symmetric and asymmetric is required. Symmetric measures of risk, often termed dispersion risk measures, deal with measurement of the probability-weighted dispersion of risk around a specific reference point, for example the mean or expected value. The higher the assessment of perceived variation, both positive and negative, around the expected or target level, then the greater will be the assessed level of risk. Thus, both positive and negative variations around the expected level or target level will influence the risk measurement. Examples of Symmetric approaches include Markowitz's (1952, 1959) 'variance' or 'standard deviation' and Atkinson's (1970) 'mean absolute deviation.' Asymmetric measures on the other hand, deal solely with the probabilities and return measures falling below the reference point. Examples of Asymmetric approaches include Domar and Musgrave (1944) 'expected value of loss'; Markowitz (1959) 'semi-variance'; and Fishburn (1977) ' ? -t ' criterion. Illustrating the difference in the two approaches in relation to the risk of supply disruptions suggests on the one hand (symmetric metric category) recognition of not only the likelihood and length of any delays but also the likelihood of delivery times in advance of the target. Early delivery times may not necessarily prove desirable as this may cause difficulties of storage for the receiving business and earlier than anticipated cash outflows (ie enhance other risk dimensions). On the other hand, if the primary concern is to ensure meeting the target delivery lead time then the asymmetric metric category may prove more appropriate, simply assessing the risk of failure to meet the target minimum delivery time. The third dilemma addresses the benchmark against which performance is being measured. The two approaches cited by Mitra et al (2003) are performance relative to historic performance of the portfolio (ie portfolio return) or alternatively against a target level often compared to other alternative investments (ie target return). The example in the previous point illustrates that the portfolio return approach may be a more appropriate framework to capture and manage the diversity of risks while seeking to achieve maximum returns. The target return approach reflects the previous illustration of focusing attention on the risks associated with achieving target delivery timescales. The Framework developed later in the paper utilizes these principles. At the more strategic level of supply chain risk management, the Framework recognizes explicitly the need to select particular categories of risk and the dynamics associated with such choices. Indeed, the Framework seeks to demonstrate some of the key groups of risk drivers. The symmetric and portfolio return approaches are illustrative of the more strategic levels of risk management within the supply chain where broader measures of performance and return are compared to previous portfolio performance or comparable investment performance. At the more tactical and operational levels, the Framework recognizes that the range of risks is often more narrowly defined and in many cases pre-determined by the nature of the operation concerned (eg inward logistics). Equally, attention is focused more on achieving targeted performance (eg meeting agreed delivery lead times) suggesting more asymmetric metrics associated with target returns. Reviewing what he termed the 'three major revolutions' in finance (ie mean-variance, 1952-1956; continuous-time models, 1969-1973; and risk measures, 1997-present), Szegö (2004) recognized the contribution these had made as well as the considerable momentum in recent research on risk measures. He suggested that risk measures should display 'consistency and repeatability within the same measure [and] the possibility of comparing results obtained from different measures. (Szegö, 2004, p 5). While the first condition is axiomatic of risk measurement, the second is more problematic in the practical environment. However, the use of different risk metrics may add value for the supply chain manager by highlighting particular perspectives, although leaving the potential problem of their reconciliation prior to taking the decision. The discussion of the Framework recognizes that there may be different choices on risk metrics and performance parameters and that the development of coherent metrics combining risk and performance measures are still in their infancy in the supply chain management field (Melnyk et al , 2004). Supply chain The difficulty with the term 'supply chain' is that there are almost an infinite number of definitions most of which are not inconsistent with each other but rather choose to focus on particular perspectives or attributes. Christopher (1992) provides a reasonably generic definition, describing a supply chain as a network of organizations that are involved, through upstream (ie supply sources) and downstream (ie distribution channels) linkages, in the different processes and activities that produce value in the form of products and services in the hands of the ultimate consumers. This definition conceives of a multiple set of organizations operating upstream and downstream with often multiple organizations operating at each stage in the chain (eg alternative competing suppliers). More recent studies (eg Ritchie and Brindley, 2000; Sinha et al , 2004) have suggested the inclusion of information flows, financial flows and relationship development, in addition to the more physical or tangible flows, reflecting the developments in information and communication technologies (ICTs). Supply Chain Management is therefore a multi-disciplinary and multi-functional set of activities which deals not only with the more physical and tangible attributes and activities (eg logistics) but equally the more behavioural and intangible dimensions (eg relationship building and management). Supply chains and risk Supply chain decisions are differentiated from the more usual business decision settings involving risk, in a number of respects: they involve a chain of decision nodes, networked together; each node plays some role in adding value to the performance of every member of the chain, although this may be indirect and often minimal; each node has the potential to contribute to the risk profile of the decision to be taken, both positively and negatively; and correspondingly, each node exerts some influence on the successful, or otherwise, implementation of the management decisions and risk resolution. This conception of the supply chain likens it to a network (Hallikas and Virolainen, 2004; Harland et al , 2003), although not all of the attributes of a network may be present (eg many links may be apparent rather than real). The inter-connectivity is the most evident difference between supply chain-related risk and those risks associated with more independent or isolated decision situations. The perspective from a particular node in the network or supply chain often makes it difficult to envisage that the decision taken at the individual node has potentially chain-wide implications. The impact of the decision may vary further up or down the supply chain from the initial decision node, the other nodes are. In some decision situations the amplitude of the effects may decrease, while in others it may increase as the effect works its way along the chain (both forwards and backwards), what may be described as a 'bullwhip' effect (Lee et al , 1997). An extreme example may be the decision to cease manufacture at a particular node. For example, the decision by Rover Cars to cease manufacture at its Longbridge plant in the UK in 2005 had implications for service and manufacturing organizations throughout the supply chain. There were significant consequences for suppliers as well as distributors, both within the immediate direct linkages in the chain as well as those connected more remotely or indirectly. The downstream amplitude through the car distribution channels and agents appeared to be much greater than upstream towards the manufacturer's suppliers. Supply chain risk management framework The schematic representation (Figure 1 - See PDF,) identifies the five major components of the Framework. In many respects, this is a fairly generic framework that may apply across a number of business settings. A number of typical elements have been identified within each of the five major components. These are designed to be illustrative rather than exhaustive. There are features of the Framework which are intended to suggest that it is more than simply an aggregation of the five components. The linear sequential process implied by the figure may be misleading. It is a far more dynamic, interactive, parallel and repetitive process. For example, changes in desired performance outcomes may trigger a sequence of actions to reconsider the perceptions of the risks involved, assess the impact on the portfolio being managed while simultaneously reviewing the evidence of the primary risk drivers involved. The essence of risk perceptiveness pervades the whole framework. We are postulating that the perceptions or attitudes towards particular risk drivers will be influenced by a range of other factors, for example potential rewards, impact on portfolio and the considered reactions of others in the decision-making unit. Similarly any changes in performance outcome projections may strongly influence the perceptions and resulting decisions. The following discussion of the five components follows the sequence Risk Context and Drivers, Decision Makers, Risk Management Responses, Performance Outcomes and finally, Risk Management Influencers. The novelty of this latter component justifies its separate treatment following the other components. Risk context and risk drivers Considering the supply chain in a more holistic sense both conceptually and practically suggests a series of different levels within the supply chain, namely the primary levels and secondary levels. The organizations involved in the primary level chain are typically those with a major involvement in the delivery of added value goods or services, whereas the organizations involved in the secondary level chain(s) provide a more indirect, though nevertheless valuable, contribution to the chain and its product/service delivery outcomes as a whole. The construction industry illustrates this well through its recognition of prime contractors and sub-contractors and their distinctive roles and risk exposure (Burtonshaw-Gunn, 2004). Business organizations have always been exposed to the failure of a supplier to deliver the right quantity, at the right time, to the agreed quality and at the agreed price. Correspondingly downstream, the exposure to irregular patterns of demand, cancelled orders and delayed or non-payment for goods are typical risks. The ICAEW (2005) study on Risk Management among SMEs identified people, ICT, market changes and business interruption among the top two tiers of risk concerns in terms of likelihood of occurrence and impact. Different organizations have developed strategies and tactics to manage such risks with differing degrees of success in aggregate performance terms. What has changed to make risk management in supply chains worthy of greater attention and to challenge the existing management approaches? A review and evaluation of the literature suggests several key developments which enhance the case for increased attention to the management of risk in the supply chain. Strategies and structures relating to supply chains are evolving more rapidly and changing shape in the search for competitive advantage, a situation described by Brindley (2004) as resulting in amorphous supply chains. Technological change provides the scope and opportunities to alter the shape and the relationships within supply chains. However, simultaneously this may pose a threat to established supply chain arrangements. Likewise, increased opportunities to compete globally courtesy of ICT developments also increases the exposure to global competitive pressures adding new risk dimensions. Members of the supply chain are becoming increasingly inter-dependent, suggesting an inter-locking of interests. Dimensions of the supply chain risk are ever-widening, with Cavinato (2004, p 384) categorizing 'risks in supply chains as: physical, financial, informational, relational and innovational.' Sinha et al (2004) support this view, identifying four major factors impacting supply chain risk as: lack of trust, withholding of information, dependence on outsourcing and standardized contracts. These and other similar developments contribute to greater complexity, the more rapid realization and enhanced impact of risks throughout the chain, often with greatly enhanced severity of the consequences for its members (Chopra and Sodhi, 2004). These characteristics arguably lead to each individual supply chain being unique in certain respects. Equally this uniqueness may require unique approaches to the management of the risks involved. However, a contingency approach may be viewed as appropriate, as despite each supply chain structure being unique in certain respects, exposed to unique risks and requiring unique solutions, there is significant value in seeking to map the common or shared characteristics and to employ common approaches to support decision makers to resolve and manage the risks faced. The key drivers or determinants of supply chain risk are summarized in Figure 2 - See PDF,. Different authors have identified and configured risk drivers in different ways. Chopra and Sodhi (2004), for example, consider the possible events and conditions then consider what may drive or cause these, potentially leading to differential drivers in each situation. The risk drivers in the present Framework are categorized more generically under five headings, linking to the level at which they are likely to have most impact (ie external environmentrisks likely to impact every organization, whereas node specific will impact only the organization itself). Risk drivers associated with the external environment are essentially exogenous and are those to which all organizations and supply chains are exposed to some degree, for example changes in the global economy or political context. Individual supply chains and members within the supply chain may experience different levels of exposure to such risk sources, in terms of potential consequences and likelihood depending on the nature of the supply chain and its members. For example, a supply chain oriented around a localized regional market will have lower levels of exposure to international developments than the supply chain operating globally. In such cases this may be viewed as a secondary level of risk. However, all businesses irrespective of their location and markets will arguably have some exposure to this systematic or unavoidable risk. Developments in portfolio theory in the finance field (eg Capital Asset Pricing Model--Sharpe, 1964) sought to differentiate between the exposure to two different categories of risk--systematic and specific. Systematic or unavoidable risk represents those risks which the organization is unable to avoid (ie cannot be diversified irrespective of changes in the portfolio), typically emanating from the external environment. In addition to macro-level economic and political risks systematic risk is also generated within the particular industry ( ie industry specific ) or sector exposing those operating primarily within the sector. The nature and degree of exposure may again vary between supply chains and organizations in the same sector depending on their particular circumstances (eg degree of dependence on a particular sector). Unsystematic or avoidable risk represents those risks generated as a consequence of the strategic decisions of the organization (eg new product or market development). Such risks may be avoided by not undertaking the particular strategic choice or reduced by choosing alternative potentially lower risk strategies. The supply chain configuration and composition of the network itself may provide a further source of risk. The number of nodes or members within the chain and their relative importance and influence are examples of variables that may influence the risk perceived at any node in the chain. Other risks associated with the supply chain may relate to the resource base and dependence on critical factors (eg the availability of skilled technical staff). While such factors may be highly localized, they may equally impact throughout the chain. This category of risk is a combination of systematic (ie unavoidable) risk, at least in the short to medium term (eg difficult to reconfigure the supply chain) and the more unsystematic (ie avoidable) risks. For example, strategies may be developed to reduce dependence and hence risk exposure emanating from certain perceived weak links in the overall chain. The performance of specific partners within the chain may generate a further set of partner specificrisks (eg financial solvency, quality standards and inadequate information systems). Such risks are usually a form of unsystematic risk which may be avoided by the organization through appropriate strategies, although the ability to ameliorate such risks in the short or medium term may be constrained. The final group of risk drivers relate to elements within the individual organization undertaking the risk assessment, the node specificrisks. Potential risks in this category emanate from the organization's ability to respond to demands of others in the supply chain (eg ill-equipped or poorly trained staff, inadequate management control and ineffective communications). Conceptually, the configuration in Figure 2 - See PDF, suggests that the management should be able to identify the key supply chain risk drivers in each category and devise actions or strategies to counter these in terms of minimizing risk exposure and the consequences. In practice, the range of potential risks, the absence of information concerning many of these, the complexity of the interaction between them (Chopra and Sodhi, 2004), combined with the sense of a lack of any degree of influence over such risks proves problematic for many managers. The Framework is also predicated on the premise that the risks and risk drivers can be foreseen, identified and somehow evaluated. The reality is quite different given the lack of knowledge about the sources, behaviour and consequences of such risks. The dynamic interaction of all the other players in the supply chain, often working independently rather than in unison, often heightens the sense of uncertainty and unpredictability. Two questions arise from this perspective on the risk context and risk drivers . Why should organizations concern themselves with preparing for encounters with risk? Secondly, given the complexity and 'fuzziness' of the decision space and problems encountered, how best to prepare themselves for the encounter? There is a sense in which the organization accepts that risks will be encountered and that being prepared for such an eventuality, even though not covering all the possibilities, is the best strategy (Kovoor-Misra et al , 2000). There may also be an argument for a more proactive stance, on the basis that being prepared and proactively taking actions may itself, counter possible risks and enhance the performance of the organization. Zsidisin et al (2004) citing Smeltzer and Siferd (1998, p 38) argue that 'proactive purchasing management is risk management.' This latter strategy would suggest a risk-seeking approach as opposed to a risk-evasive approach. However, Chopra and Sodhi (2004, p 60) while advocating preparedness for risks also caution on the need to 'keep a vigilant eye on the trade-off between the risk and the cost of building a reserve to mitigate it.' Decision makers Figure 3 - See PDF, summarizes the range of factors impacting the risk management process in terms of the type of decision-making unit (ie individual or group), although this may be compounded further if external partners in the supply chain are involved formally or informally in the process. In each case the factors such as attitudes towards risk, previous experiences of similar decision situations, known or anticipated rewards and penalties may all impact on the risk perceptions of a given decision or set of decisions, influencing the responses. Some authors (eg Lazo, 1960, p 265) have focussed on the individual risk linked to perceived penalties suggesting that the 'fear of displeasing the boss, fear of making a wrong decision, fear of losing status, fear indeed, in extreme cases, of losing one's job' represent significant factors in respect of penalties. Indeed, it is quite acceptable to view the reverse scenario if the decision proves successful resulting in rewards rather than penalties, although the negative personal consequences are often viewed as the most significant (Hawes and Barnhouse, 1987). Risk management responses Risk Management comprises a diverse set of activities (Figure 4 - See PDF,) all designed to address the multiple dimensions of profitability, risk exposure, timescales and portfolios. Key groupings of such activities may include: Chopra and Sodhi (2004, p 59) argue that the appropriate response should be to combine 'a shared, organization-wide understanding of supply-chain risk' with the adaptation of 'general risk mitigation approaches to the circumstances of their particular company.' A similar argument for a Contingency Approach to risk management was made by Ritchie and Brindley (2004). Zsidisin et al (2004, p 408) conclude that the ongoing monitoring and review of supply risk information from existing suppliers may permit the development of 'contingency plans as supply risk increases.' Performance outcomes Wide differences exist in definitions of the term performance. For example, Child (1975) defines performance in terms of efficiency and profitability, whereas Hage and Dewar (1973) express performance in terms of employee satisfaction. Such differences often reflect differences in perspectives concerning the purpose of the organization and the stakeholder composition. The focus in the present paper is towards the economic metrics. The two terms effectiveness and efficiency are reflected in most definitions that relate to business performance. Profitability is employed here as the key metric encapsulating both efficiency and effectiveness, although recognizing that agreement on the measurement of the term profitability itself remains problematic. Aggregate business performance (Figure 5 - See PDF,) is viewed as a composition of profit performance, business and personal (ie decision maker) risk exposure together with the timeframe over which such decision are taken and performance measured. The third dimension associated with performance in terms of profitability and risk relates to timescale. The achievement of improved financial performance in the short run may be achieved at the expense of increased risk exposure in the longer run. For example, sourcing components primarily on cost considerations may generate short-run improvements in profitability, although may increase longer-run risk exposure to supply dislocation, quality deterioration and loss of technological development etc. These three variables are mutually interdependent, although the nature of this interdependence may often be more perceptual than real, that is if the decision maker perceives or believes there to be a certain interdependence between the three variables this is likely to influence the decisions taken irrespective of whether or not there is a link. Risk management influencers The novel feature of the present formulation of the Supply Chain Risk Management Framework is the separation and highlighting of what have been termed Risk Management Influencers, comprising four key elements--rewards, supply chain risks, timescales and portfolio considerations. These four components are dealt with in turn below. Rewards. Risk Management is inherently a process of balancing potential risks against potential rewards to achieve favourable outcomes in terms of aggregate business performance. Peck (2005, p 214) found that 'efforts to improve performance against one measure (eg cost or quality) often inadvertently reduced performance and increased risk associated with one or more of the others (eg scheduled adherence or relationship management).' Similarly, Chopra and Sodhi (2004, p 54) concluded that 'individual risks are often interconnected. As a result, actions to mitigate one risk can end up exacerbating another.' Explicit recognition of the linkage between risk and potential rewards is important. The exposure to many risks, although not all, is a consequence of the organization seeking higher rewards and improved performance, most notably resulting in increased profitability. Hence, in the context of the supply chain, individual or collaborative groups of organizations may propose tactical and strategic changes with a view to enhancing the performance of the parties involved. Not all risks are within the organization's control as explained in our earlier discussion of systematic risk. Such risks are not avoidable although the organization and its partners may choose to develop responses to mitigate the effects of these (ie develop alternative sources of supply to avoid effects of political instability in a particular country). We have argued that this risk/reward relationship underpins the whole basis of undertaking risks and risky decisions and hence any framework on risk management. What may be open to question is the explicitness of the risk and reward parameters and how decision makers choose to recognize and respond to these. Supply chain risk. The structure of the supply chain framework is multi-dimensional. Hence, any framework needs to accommodate the widening context of the supply chain and its stakeholders. Many decisions that focus around the particular node in the supply chain, involve not only decisions relevant to the organization itself but those operating elsewhere in the chain. This approach would view members of the chain as inter-linked or inter-locked both in terms of the interdependence of their activities and the associated risks. The risk perceived by an organization in relation to its supply chain may be conceived of as follows (Figure 6 - See PDF,). The first dimension, Node Concentric Risk , represents those risks primarily focused around the particular stage or node in the supply chain network. These may often be conceived of as those associated with operational disturbance and tactical disruption (Kleindorfer and Wassenhove, 2003; Paulsson and Norrman, 2003). It may be posited that decision makers are more comfortable with this node concentric risk as it attunes to their prior experience, knowledge base and perceptions concerning their ability to directly influence or control such risks. It is important to stress that this risk may encompass interaction with immediate members of the supply chain at adjoining nodes and also considerations of other competitors at the same stage in the chain. Risks and decisions are typically associated with product development, marketing, manufacturing costs, quality, logistics, delivery times, service etc. The second dimension, Chain Diversified Risks , represents more of a holistic and strategic perspective and set of decisions. Such risks would reflect not only the future interactions with immediate nodes in the chain with which the organization interacts but also nodes at further stages up and down the chain, potentially linking with nodes not presently part of the network at all. An example of such risks might be the strategic consideration of disintermediation (Ritchie and Brindley, 2000), a strategic consideration to deliberately bypass or skip certain stages and nodes in the chain (eg web-based online shopping eliminates some of the distribution stages). It is likely that since the frame within which such decisions are taken will be longer term and wider than the node concentric risks, the decision makers may perceive these as involving higher degrees of uncertainty and hence higher perceived risk. The lower levels of experience and the less frequent engagement in such decisions may further enhance the sense of uncertainty or perception of high risk. The remaining feature implicit in the relationship in Figure 6 - See PDF, concerns the nature of the interaction between the two dimensions. One view would be that the two dimensions are in a sense independent (ie an additive relationship) and that the risks and decisions from one do not influence the other. The view taken in the present discussion is that an interdependent relationship (ie multiplicative) is more appropriate, recognizing that risks encountered in one dimension may well pervade the other dimension and similarly the decisions taken will cross the boundaries and influence the other risks. There may be synergies in risk as well as performance outcomes, although this may well work in the reverse direction. For example, investment in an internal stock management system (ie node concentric) may reduce some risk dimensions associated with developing an outbound logistics strategy (ie chain diversified). Conceptually the division into two risk dimensions, Node Concentric and Chain Diversified may prove plausible. However, in practice, this may prove more problematic. Part of the difficulty, in practice, is that decision makers may perceive the problem and decision spaces differently. Hence, although there may be agreement on the core of a problem situation there will invariably be different views or perceptions about the inclusiveness, causality and influence of variables and the likelihood of event occurrence (Tversky and Kahneman, 1981). Another difficulty is that decision makers often take only a partial view of the decision problem and space and hence the risks involved. In such cases the tendency will be to focus on the more Node Concentric Risks, which may be further evidence of seeking to address those decision situations which they believe that they may be able to influence or manage in some way. Introducing the risk management responses (see Figure 7 - See PDF,) mentioned earlier illustrates that the organization may develop and implement a series of activities designed to manage the risks perceived. Such activities may range from risk avoidance (ie taking steps to avoid the risk totally), risk amelioration (ie seeking to minimize the occurrence and avoid the worst consequences) and insurance (ie covering the costs of repatriation following the realization of a particular outcome). Again, it would be somewhat simplistic to argue that the risk management responses associated with each category of risk are independent, as often the impact of risk management activities to resolve the Node Concentric Risks will have an impact, either negative or positive, on the Chain Diversified Risks (eg decisions to source from a preferred supplier may distort the strategic positioning within the chain and consequently the risks). Timescale. Timescale plays an important though often obscure role in risk management decisions. The passage of time often results in greater resolution of the risks involved as information received may clarify the nature and scale of the risks. This should not suggest that the risks will always reduce with the passage of time as they are just as likely to increase. It is often argued that taking action early in the decision cycle may lead to enhanced opportunity for reward although at higher risk (eg new product development and launch), whereas delay may lead to greater resolution of the risks with consequences also for the rewards (eg following the market leader in new product launch may be at lower perceived risks but also reduced rewards). While one might conceive of the Node Concentric Risks being concerned more with the immediate timescale than the Chain Diversified Risks , this may not always be the case. Crises arising within the Supply Chain may require immediate attention. Decision maker preferences may often mean that the more immediate and 'closer to home' decisions concerning Node Concentric Risks are given priority, possibly indefinitely at the expense of any consideration of the more strategic Chain Diversified Risks (Chopra and Sodhi, 2004). Portfolio. The final element in the Risk Management Influencers posits a more realistic position for the typical organization's strategies and operations. Few organizations operate within the confines of a single linear supply chain. Most are contemplating a multiple set of channels both backwards and forwards, increasingly operating simultaneously with several different nodes in the supply chain. Reference was made earlier to the categorization of risks within financial portfolio theory (egSharpe, 1964 ) and the treatment of a portfolio of risk situations . The organization and its decision makers need to manage in aggregate the portfolio of risks. This is illustrated in Figure 8 - See PDF,. Risk Management now assumes an additional dimension since this is now concerned with managing the portfolio of supply chain risk situations to in some way balance the aggregate portfolio of risks within an acceptable level while seeking to ensure the generation of an acceptable reward or return on this capital. Empirical evaluation Research methods The primary approach to developing the Supply Chain Risk Management Framework was based on an iterative process of reviewing the literature and research over a number of years and refining the components and elements. Part of this process has been informed by empirical research undertaken by the authors, including the earlier stages of the longitudinal study reported in the next section. The empirical evidence presented is drawn from a longitudinal study involving a manufacturing organization based in the UK. Zsidisin et al (2004) argue for longitudinal studies in the field to determine whether risk assessment and proactive supply chain management have a significant effect on organizational performance. The evidence which was collected via a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods has been presented in the form of a case scenario. This reflects Peck's (2005, p 218) assertion that there is a 'prevalence of positivist supply chain management research,' suggesting the need for applying alternative methodological paradigms. The mixed method approach assists with the presentation and analysis of the data in relation to the theme of the paper and provides a basis for corroboration and greater explanatory power. The engagement with the research site has lasted some six years and regular meetings are held on site to collect data and appraise developments. One member of the research team is a senior employee of the organization and hence able to provide insights which might not normally be apparent to the external investigator. This role of participant observer was managed carefully to ensure objectivity and to protect the confidence of those engaged in the management processes being observed. Case study Background to case The case study organization is a multinational business operating in 140 different countries and manufacturing and selling a range of high value agricultural equipment. The mature market conditions evident in the UK agricultural sector, means the aggregate demand for tractors and associated farming machinery is fairly stable, although the marketplace remains highly competitive. Competition takes place on a number of different though related bases, including price, quality, technology, brand image, sales support and after-sale service. Although a small amount of direct sales to end users takes place, the majority of the sales are via a system of geographically related dealerships. In terms of the supply chain configuration, the manufacturer represents the key influencing node within the network. During the period of the study, this position was modified somewhat as a consequence of the decision taken to cease manufacture and assembly in the UK and to import finished products from the main manufacturing plant in mainland Europe. Although this radically changed the nature of the supply chain from the UK perspective, the Company is still the key contributor in the supply chain, possessing the most significant power and influence. One of the key dimensions of the supply chain both prior to and subsequent to the decision to outsource manufacturing to Europe was the sales and distribution channel, represented by a system of dealerships. These dealerships although small in number, around 40 covering all of England, represent a critical interface between the Company and its ultimate consumers, the farming community. This constitutes what has been termed the primary level supply chain in the context of the Supply Chain Risk Management Framework. The dealership system is the normal channel used by all of the agricultural manufacturers for sales, distribution, customer support, servicing and parts. Competition primarily takes place between dealerships in the same geographic area though not between dealerships for the same manufacturer, as each has a designated territory. Strategically, there may well exist the desire on behalf of the manufacturer to source new dealerships (ie attract from their existing dealership agreement with a competitor manufacturer) to mitigate the potential risks of their existing dealership in a particular region either failing to perform adequately to target or failing completely. Similarly, the dealerships themselves may be surveying the strategic possibilities of switching to another manufacturer or acquiring another dealership. The evidence available during the period of the study showed little evidence of switching (ie less than 2% over the entire period), although it was evident that these strategic considerations were being undertaken. The Supply Chain Risk Management Framework is applied to the case situation in the following sections. This is intended to demonstrate how the Framework can assist in the logical structuring of the analysis and the important contribution of the particular components. Risk context and risk drivers An analysis of the risk drivers in the primary supply chain was undertaken with the specific focus on the linkages between the Company and its distribution channels. The scope of the study did not include the secondary supply chain members though there were a number of examples where their performance impinged on the performance of the primary members (eg failure to deliver OEM (other equipment manufacturers) spares, financial constraints by lenders, delays in provision of promotional materials). The identification of the factors viewed as primary level risk drivers is designed to be illustrative rather than exhaustive for the purposes of evaluating the applicability of the Framework. External environment : The usual factors associated with global, national and local economic, political and social changes that impact on all companies, though arguably to different degrees. Industry specific : There was a reduction in both market size and a shrinking customer base in the UK, more so than in the rest of Europe, as a consequence of increased farming intensity and consequent reduction in number of farms. This was combined with low profitability and reducing investment and the withdrawal of land from farming towards alternative uses, although some of these (eg golf courses) may require machinery. The technological developments yielding new products, higher added value and significant reductions in operating costs helped to accelerate the product replacement cycle (down to an average of every 3 years). The result was intensified competition for the stable if not shrinking market driven by increased product differentiation. Incidents peculiar to the farming sector have also had a tendency to accelerate some of these developments (eg Foot and Mouth epidemic in the UK during 2001). Supply chain configuration : The configuration of the primary supply chain has remained relatively stable throughout the sector. One change experienced in the case organization was the relocation of its manufacturing base from the UK to Europe, adding an additional logistical dimension. The switch to a make to customer order policy as opposed to having finished products within the overall supply chain, placed emphasis on the efficiency of the logistics to deliver within the promised 6 to 8 weeks. This is perhaps less of a radical change than appears at first sight as most products had been made to individual customer specifications previously. In fairness this transition was effected with no evidence of logistical problems directly associated with the move. Partner specific : The main considerations between the two primary partners were maintaining the dealership network; encouraging stockholding of parts; service quality and support; training and development especially technical expertise; financial performance of dealerships; sales performance; and the retention of skilled labour within the dealership. Node specific : The node specific considerations for both the manufacturer and the dealership concerned similar issues to those quoted above in relation to the partner specific factors, although the exact nature and prioritization of these would vary for each member. Risk management influencers Rewards. As will be seen later, the manufacturer instituted a system of rewards for the dealerships based around target levels of performance. This in a sense encouraged the dealership and its staff to undertake careful analysis of the risks and to manage these to seek target or better than target performance. The evidence available, both quantitatively and qualitatively, suggested a very positive attitude by the dealerships towards achieving these targets. Supply chain risks. Although the identification of the risk context and drivers (see previous section) generates the identification and awareness of the cluster of risks, both operational and strategic, associated with the supply chain, these are typically numerous and often diffuse. The organization needs to determine some prioritization of the key risks to be addressed. In the case situation the priority strategic risks were very much concerned with the sustainability and the aggregate performance of the dealership network at the strategic level. The priorities at the operational level were more concerned with parts holding, service levels and service quality. Timescale. The risk and performance measurement instruments employed were a combination of short and medium term on the one hand less frequent strategic appraisal on the other hand. The monthly monitoring and review process sought to establish any deviations from target performance and indicate potential risks. This required feedback from each dealership across the range of performance criteria being measured. Significant deviations were picked up and investigated by the manufacturer's regional representative. The annual review process was constructed on the same performance parameters although was a more involved and formalised process which also involved the setting of targets for the subsequent year. Portfolio. The portfolio management approach was evident at two levels. Firstly, each area manager was expected to manage the aggregate risk and performance for the group of dealerships in their particular area. Not only did the dealerships vary in terms of size and coverage, they also exhibited significant differences in terms of performance (ie achieving agreed targets) and risks. Attention was directed towards those that exhibited the greatest risk of failing to meet their performance targets. There was a sense that those within this category were readily identifiable and fairly regular members of this group. The second level was more strategic and concerned the overall risk and performance across all the dealerships, identifying sales areas that may be exhibiting higher risk/performance exposure and possibly individual dealerships causing particular concerns. Decision makers The case organization exhibited a combination of individual and group decision making. Decisions at the operational level involving risks that were readily identifiable and measurable in terms of their nature, likelihood and consequences typically involved one or two people in the organization interacting with their corresponding colleagues in the distributor organization. For example, avoiding the risk of a stockout on a particular part might typically involve the Sales Department and the Distributor's Purchasing and Maintenance functions. In this example, the probability and consequences of the risk in terms of performance measures (eg loss of sales, service quality and customer retention) are reasonably predictable. If the issue were to escalate into considerations about increased investment in stockholding, then this would widen the involvement, both in terms of functions and seniority of staff, in the decision process. The regular monthly and annual reviews conducted of and with the dealerships themselves typically involved consideration of more strategic issues and risks. The process also engaged more people within the manufacturer and the dealerships (eg Finance, Marketing and Training). What was observed was that the decision-making process in terms of risk management was very rarely the product of a single individual or within a single time period. The risk management process involved a number of individuals, both within the manufacturer and dealerships, from different functions and at different levels (eg individuals discussing with colleagues at the same level and with their superiors and subordinates). The more strategic the decision in terms of risks and performance consequences, then the more widely this engagement took place. The evidence also suggested that the manufacturer sought more actively to engage the distributors into this debate and decision process, itself a form of risk management. Such responses are perhaps not surprising as such risks are less measurable and the potential consequences to the individual more severe. Risk management responses Responding to the risk drivers and risk influencers, the Company examined a number of alternatives for managing the risks involved. Many of the strategic risks could be identified and categorized as systematic and exogenous and hence generally outwith the ability of the company to manage proactively. There was a sense that since all competitors in the market place were exposed to these in a generally equal fashion, there appeared to be little advantage to invest heavily in assessing and managing such risks. The exception to this general consideration relates to the strategic significance of the distribution channel and the dealership structure. The choices available to the company in terms of risk management were between a detailed planning, monitoring and control system based on information flows of performance and the development of initiatives concerned with building closer relationships through structures, processes and other interactions. The initial development involved a more summative approach based on the development of Business Plans for each dealership. These were formulated through discussion between the company's sales representative and the dealership management. A system of bonus payments to the dealership were linked to the achievement of agreed and planned performance outcomes. These performance targets though not explicitly linked to risk management had the effect of addressing certain risk exposures. For example, setting target liquidity ratios for the dealership helped to reduce exposure to the risk of the financial failure of a dealership. The unusual feature of this relationship was the influence that the Company could exert on its dealers to provide this level of detailed and commercially sensitive information. The information was provided on a monthly basis and there were regular feedback sessions via the sales representative who is primarily responsible for managing the relationship. Another related initiative involved the Company sharing aggregate market research and performance data with its dealers (eg sales analysis by brand and model within individual post codes, areas and regions, competitor analysis) derived from external sources. The risk management approach adopted had a number of distinctive features: The UK Company focussed attention almost exclusively on the dealership network, recognizing that most of the manageable risks were located in this element of the supply chain. Failure to manage the risks in the dealership link could have a high likelihood of risk exposure and severe consequences for performance, at least in the short to medium term. Attention was given to the identification and classification of the risk drivers. A combination of 'carrot' and 'stick' approach was used to ensure adherence to performance. A system of bonuses for above target performance coupled with the penalties for failing to meet targets (ie performance bonuses became an important contribution to the 'normal' profit achievement of the dealerships) as introduced. Formal and regular performance reporting system instituted to monitor and control performance. Deviances detected at an early stage assisted in reducing the risk exposure. Underlying emphasis on the need to develop effective relationships built around close collaboration, effective communications, information sharing and the building of trust within the relationships. An interesting observation is that the implementation of Performance Standards was not seen by either partner as the imposition of a risk management strategy designed to ameliorate the Company's risk exposure but rather a collaborative approach that resolved the risks within the chain to the mutual benefit of all partners. Performance outcomes The most far-reaching initiative was the establishment of an agreed set of Performance Standards covering all the key dimensions of the dealership's operations including tactical and strategic elements (eg staff training and development programmes and succession planning for senior management). Performance against the agreed standards is measured on a regular basis and discussed by the sponsor's sales representative with the dealership. Above target performance is rewarded with bonus payments, while below target required the agreement and initiation of remedial actions. Evaluation of framework The engagement with the case company over the lengthy period facilitated the observation of the evolving pattern of the risk management process and relationships directed towards the supply chain and its members. The process changed from one based on an 'arms length' approach to one of increased sharing of information, building relationships and more direct involvement with partners in the risk management responses. The process was an initial step in the sharing of the risks which in a sense was more implicit than explicit (ie no formal recognition or allocation of responsibilities for certain risks), although one might conceive of such explicit actions being acceptable in the future, especially at the more short-term operational levels. While observing the increased confidence in the interchanges between the partners in the chain and the development of greater trust, there remains a degree of caution in the risk management aspects associated with the medium and strategic considerations (eg continuous appraisal of the financial viability of the distributors/partners). Reaching some consensus on the appropriate performance measures which evolved into targets on which bonus payments were made, became a crucial element in the risk management process. Inherent in setting the performance measures and their acceptability is an assessment of the key risks influencing the supply chain and their potential consequences. Conclusions The purpose underlying the research study and the paper was to respond to the challenges posed by the changing supply chain context, specifically relating to supply chain risk management. As indicated in the earlier part of the paper, important questions are being raised about the value of the already established decision-making tools and techniques in the changing decision contexts and problems involving risk (eg Zsidisin et al , 2004). The paper sought to examine and explore some of these changes and their implications, utilizing the Supply Chain Risk Management Framework to guide this discussion. The conceptual Framework itself and the evidence from the case suggests that the central issue concerns less the appropriateness or contribution of individual Operation Research tools and techniques but possibly more the context within which they are applied. Concerns about structures, systems, information sharing, interactions, personal exchanges, trust etc. are viewed as important dimensions of the risk management process. Viewing risk from the perspective of the supply chain is arguably quite different from viewing risk in relation to more constrained types of decision where many of the risks are identifiable and possibly measurable. The paper explored the nature of risk
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ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY****** The two articles that follow need to be summarized and also correlate the economic ideas of government regulation and market competition and social economic effieciency.MUST BE 100% ORIGINAL/ NO PLAGIARISM TOLERATED******************** Economic Efficiency in Law and Economics, by Richard 0. Zerbe Jr (Edward Elgar, Cheltenham UK, 2001), pp. 333. Richard O. Zerbe's Economic Efficiency in Law and Economics is one of many books recently published about law and economics. In fact, the book really is only marginally concerned with the law. It has a lot more to do with economic philosophy. In particular, it is concerned with addressing some of the perceived difficulties with the Pareto and Kaldor-Hicks standards that most of us have come to accept as the base-lines for measuring efficiency. The central tenet of the book is that, if a better efficiency standard could be devised, one that more accurately measured preferences and more fully acknowledged the social importance of distributional outcomes, this would make for better decision-making for overall social benefit. So, much of the book is concerned with criticising the Pareto and Kaldor-Hicks efficiency standards (mainly drawing here on critiques of others) and then coming up with a new standard, modestly termed 'KHZ'. Zerbe's KHZ standard explicitly adopts preferences as its benchmark, not 'utility' as under the old Kaldor-Hicks standard. Zerbe acknowledges that transaction costs and social norms (the latter reflected in subjective assessments about benefits and costs) need to be considered in a full appraisal of preferences. Therefore, account can be taken of social attitudes about the distributional effects of a given change. And it is allowed that the effects of legal rules cannot be treated as irrelevant in any rational assessment of benefits and costs since these add to transaction costs if legal property rights are being appropriated. Beyond that legal rules will be reflected in subjective assessments about benefits and costs, to the extent they are embedded in social norms. Zerbe offers a sophisticated and pragmatic treatment of the Kaldor-Hicks standard that may appeal to anyone with an interest in public policy. From a lawyer's perspective the treatment is valuable in its acknowledgement of the binding effect of legal obligations and the, often close, relationship between legal standards and the social norms of the community whose preferences are being assessed. It is debatable whether the label 'KHZ' should be applied when all that is being offered is a new treatment of an old standard, not an entirely new standard. Zerbe, for instance, does not suggest that the old Kaldor-Hicks standard was not essentially concerned with measuring preferences, even if it was ostensibly to do with utility. Nor does he move away from the idea that a kind of subjective benefit-cost analysis is required, even if he thinks it could be done better. Nor, finally, does he jettison willingness to pay (which depends in turn on ability to pay) as the ultimate arbiter of preferences. As such, the so-called KHZ standard still falls short of providing an accurate measure of preferences, let alone utility or, for that matter, distributive justice. That has been a real problem with the Kaldor-Hicks standard, as many of its critics and even its supporters have pointed out before (see, for instance, Trebilcock 1999). It may be that willingness to pay is the best way we have of measuring preferences in many contexts: other methods are worse. But it still, as Ronald Dworkin put it (Dworkin 1980), represents a `false target' for anything of value, and a poor one at that. Zerbe's response is that, to the extent concerns about the willingness to pay measure are reflected in social norms of the community, or at least of those who are willing to pay for their preferences to be acknowledged, there is a way of tying them into the KHZ standard. They can be considered along with other benefits and costs associated with a given change, as subjectively assessed. But the analysis provides a very limited basis for accounting for social norms. Further, in the same way as lawyer economists have learnt that legal standards may affect social norms, so may efficiency standards. The concern is that a degree of complacency may emerge around an efficiency standard that relies on willingness (and ability) to pay and that this will be reflected in the preferences of those whose preferences can be counted. Ultimately, there seems to me to be no way out of the conundrum except to acknowledge that efficiency based on Kaldor-Hicks (including KHZ) is not the only standard to be employed when choices have social implications. We can still argue separately about distributive justice, though even here social norms may not provide the best measure of what is the just solution. Further, our current attempts to measure efficiency should be viewed with a degree of scepticism. It is true we are yet to see a practical alternative to KaldorHicks efficiency (which can apply outside the narrow parameters dictated by the Pareto standard). But in my view it is better to strive to measure preferences properly, or at least acknowledge that our existing measures are imperfect but the best we have for the moment, than to maintain the fiction that a standard that takes willingness (and ability) to pay as its measure is accurate in recording preferences. In fact, I would go further and argue that it is wrong to focus exclusively on preferences. An efficiency analysis should always ultimately be concerned with utility (in the objective sense) not simply subjective preferences, even if preferences are an important part of assessing utility. Otherwise there is no basis left for considering whether what someone may prefer is socially desirable. Economic Efficiency in Law and Economics is an interesting and worthwhile book. If I have disagreed with some of its premises, it still offers much of value for those inclined to look more closely at the Kaldor Hicks standard and its relevance to public policy decision-making. Hopefully, in the future we will see some economist-- philosophers providing a better solution still to the problem of measuring utility. ************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** Effects of Financial Sector's Development and Financial Sector's Efficiency on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Developing and Developed Countries Waheed, Abdul; Younus, Najia.International Journal of Economic Perspectives 4. 2 (2010): 449-458. Turn on hit highlighting for speaking browsers Hide highlighting Abstract (summary) Translate AbstractTranslate This paper analyses the effects of financial sector's development and financial sector's efficiency on economic growth of a group of selected developing and developed countries using a cross-country data averaged over the period 200 1-2005. The results show that the effect of financial sector's development and financial sector's efficiency on economic growth is significantly positive for a full sample of 98 developing and developed countries. For a sample of 64 developing countries the effect of financial sector's development and financial sector's efficiency is also positive and highly significant, however, for a sample of 26 developed countries the effect of financial sector's development is significantly positive but the effect of financial sector's efficiency is positive but statistically insignificant. The sensitivity analysis also shows that the relationship remain positive and significant no matter what combination of the omitted variables are used in the basic model. Thus, our findings support the core idea that financial sector's development and financial sector's efficiency stimulates economic growth. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT] Full Text • Translate Full textTranslate • Turn on search term navigationTurn on search term navigation Headnote ABSTRACT This paper analyses the effects of financial sector's development and financial sector's efficiency on economic growth of a group of selected developing and developed countries using a cross-country data averaged over the period 200 1-2005. The results show that the effect of financial sector's development and financial sector's efficiency on economic growth is significantly positive for a full sample of 98 developing and developed countries. For a sample of 64 developing countries the effect of financial sector's development and financial sector's efficiency is also positive and highly significant, however, for a sample of 26 developed countries the effect of financial sector's development is significantly positive but the effect of financial sector's efficiency is positive but statistically insignificant. The sensitivity analysis also shows that the relationship remain positive and significant no matter what combination of the omitted variables are used in the basic model. Thus, our findings support the core idea that financial sector's development and financial sector's efficiency stimulates economic growth. JEL Classification: E44; F43; N20. Key Words: Financial Development; Financial Efficiency; Economic Growth. 1. INTRODUCTION For the last few decades, the relationship between financial depth and economic growth has received serious attention in the literature. The theoretical and empirical studies although substantially advanced in this area but they did not lead to a general consensus on the appearance and direction of the relationship. Thus, the issue still attracts researchers to advance the knowledge in this area. From a fundamental economic point of view, the growth of financial markets can be attributed to the existence of market frictions that exists in the form of transaction and information costs. Financial intermediaries also play a role in reducing the costs that are associated with savings and investment decisions. Finally, financial markets are expected to contribute to an efficient allocation of available resources that can positively affect economic growth. Acemoglu and Zilibotti, (1997) conclude that financial depth mobilizes and pools savings. It thereby not only fosters capital accumulation but also contributes to a better resource allocation in the economy. This is achieved through economies of scale and overcoming investment indivisibilities. Greenwood and Smith (1997) develop a model wherein financial markets promote specialization and reduce transaction costs, which lead to productivity gains that translate into higher growth. Financial institutions also reduce liquidity risk as they allow the transformation of liquid financial assets (that are desirable by the savers) into long-term capital investments. Furthermore financial markets modernize information costs on investment opportunities and thus improve the allocation of capital. Shleifer and Vishny (1996) confirmed that financial intermediaries that function efficiently improve the monitoring of investment activities and enhance corporate governance. Owing to the existence of market frictions such as high transactions costs and information asymmetries, diffused shareholders may be prevented from exercising adequate control over the managers of the firms. The problem of corporate governance can be ameliorated by smooth functioning of financial arrangements. In general, the above mechanisms suggest that financial development should have a significant positive effect on economic growth as it fosters capital accumulation and leads to productivity gains thanks to a better allocation of resources.1 Through the expansion and sophistication of financial institutions, the amount and quality of the supply of financial services increases, and this in turn promotes economic growth. However, the view that financial development is a key determinant of economic growth has been challenged from different angles throughout the past few decades. First, it was pointed out that, from a theoretical perspective, improvements in resource allocation would not necessarily lead to higher economic growth. In fact, under certain conditions, higher returns on savings that result from financial sector development can reduce savings rates to such an extent that overall growth slows.2 Similarly, if development of the financial sector lowers the liquidity constraints of individuals, the overall savings rate may decline, leading to weaker economic growth (see Jappelli and Pagano, 1994). Secondly, a number of economists support the so-called "demandfollowing hypothesis" (see, Ireland, 1994). According to this hypothesis, causality between the two phenomena runs the other way, namely from economic growth to financial development: in the process of a growing economy, individuals demand more and better financial services, which then fosters financial development. A third group of economic researchers deny a quantitatively important causal relation between financial development and economic growth. Instead, they regard them as largely independent phenomena. According to this view, financial development may help to predict economic growth as financial markets develop in anticipation of economic activity. However, finance is not regarded as a fundamental cause of economic growth. Finally, as highlighted by, among others, Greenwood and Smith (1997), causality between the two variables might run in both directions. That is, financial development and economic growth may mutually cause each other.3 Based on the review of above theoretical debate, this paper addresses two research questions: First, whether financial sector's developments and financial sector's efficiency promotes economic growth or retards it. Second, has effect of financial sector's development and financial sector's efficiency on developed and developing countries' economic growth is same or different? To answer these two questions, we use two different indicators of financial sector's development and one indicator of financial sector's efficiency to test the relationship for a full sample of 98 countries first and then for a group of 64 developing countries and 26 developed countries for a data averaged over the period 2001-2005. To check the robustness of the results a simple sensitivity analysis is also performed. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section II discusses the previous empirical studies on the subject. Section III describes our simple model and discusses the estimation results. Section IV presents sensitivity analyses and section V gives conclusion and policy implications. 2. EMPIRICAL LITERATURE A large number of empirical studies have tried to assess the qualitative and quantitative impact of financial development on economic growth by using different types of econometric approaches and a variety of indicators to measure financial development. In a seminal study, King and Levine (1993b) analysed cross-country data for 80 countries over the period 1960-1989. They use four different indicators to measure financial development.4 Controlling for other variables that affect long-run growth, they found that different financial indicators were strongly and robustly correlated with economic growth. They also showed that the initial level of financial depth was a good predictor of subsequent rates of economic growth even after controlling for other growth-enhancing factors. Levine and Zervos (1998) extend the empirical analyses by studying the empirical relationship between several measures of stock market development, banking development and long run economic growth. They found that both the initial level of stock market liquidity (measured by the turnover ratio5) and the initial level of banking development (measured by bank credit to the private sector as a ratio of GDP) were robustly correlated with future economic growth. They concluded that financial development and economic growth have strong positive link and that financial factors are an integral part of the growth process. Later, Levine, Loayza, and Beck (2000) estimate a generalized method of moments (GMM) equation with panel data. Concerning the measurement of financial development, they introduced the new indicator "private credit", which is defined as the value of credits by financial intermediaries to the private sector divided by GDP. Financial intermediaries comprise both deposit money banks and other financial institutions. Levine, Loayza, and Beck (2000) found evidence of a strong link between financial development and economic growth. Their results indicated that the evolution of private credit had a particularly large impact on the growth performance in their sample. Xu (2000) use a multivariate vector autoregressive approach to examine the effects of permanent financial development on domestic investment and output in 41 countries between 1960 and 1993. The results showed that financial development is important to GDP growth and that domestic investment is an important channel through which financial development affects economic growth. Furthermore, many countries were able to turn the short-term negative effects to long term positive effects, and all these results were robust. In a recent study Rioja and Valev (2004) investigate the channels through which financial development influence economic growth in a panel of 74 countries during 1961-1995. They found that finance has a strong positive influence on productivity growth primarily in more developed countries. In less developed countries, the effect of finance on output growth occurs primarily through capital accumulation. In addition to cross-country and panel studies, a substantial amount of literature has employed time-series techniques to investigate the finance-growth relationship. Using basically Granger-type causality tests and vector autoregressive procedures, the majority of these studies provide support for the hypothesis that causality runs from financial development to growth. Rousseau and Wachtel (1998) conduct a time-series tests of financial development and growth for five countries using a measure of financial development that includes the assets of both banks and non-banks. They concluded that the dominant direction of causality runs from financial development to economic growth. Khan et al. (2005) test the relationship between financial development and economic growth for Pakistan over the period 1971-2004, using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) technique. The results of the study showed that in the long-run financial depth and real interest rate exert positive impact on economic growth. However, the relationship between growth and financial development is though positive but remained insignificant in the short-run. They concluded that growth is an outcome of financial development. Recently, Waheed and Younus (2009) analyse the long run relationship between financial development and growth in Pakistan using a time series data for the period 1971- 2006. They concluded that there exist a long run robust relationship between financial development and economic growth in the country. Overall, recent empirical evidence from cross-country, panel and time-series studies suggests that financial development is an important determinant of economic growth. However, the impact may be nonlinear. This could be especially true in countries with very low institutional quality, where financial deepening may not translate into higher economic growth. 3. MODEL AND RESULTS Thus, based on the theoretical discussion, empirical studies, data availability and the need to conserve degrees of freedom, only three variables are chosen for our basic model to explain the variation in per capita income. The basic equation is: Y = ?0 + ?1X+ ?2H + ?3FD + ?t where Y represent economic growth. We have followed standard practice (Roubini and Sala-i- Martin 1992, and King and Levine 1993a, b) to use real GDP per capita GDP as an indicator for economic growth. X is a set of variables always included in the regression. In our model we include ratio of gross fixed capital formation to GDP as a proxy for physical capital (IGDP). H is a subset of variables identified by the literature as potentially important explanatory variables for growth. Here we use combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio (ENRL) as a proxy for human capital. FD denotes variables of interest and it denotes the error term. Several indicators of financial development have been proposed in the literature. Of course, different indicators will proxy different aspects of the relationship between the financial development and economic performance. The most frequently used conventional proxy to measure the degree of financial sectors development is the ratio of a less liquid monetary asset, normally M2 or M3, to the level of nominal GDP. Therefore, the first proxy of the degree of financial deepening is the ratio of the stock of broad money (M2) to GDP (M2GDP). This indicator is used, for example, by King and Levine (1993b), Darrat (1999), Nashashibi et al. (2001). Throughout the process of development, the ratio M2GDP has a tendency to rise as access to banking and alternative instruments of store of value (investment and savings) spread. Therefore, an increase in this variable signifies a larger financial sector. However, as markets mature, the ratio M2/GDP tends to decline as other financial instruments not included in M2 are developed and become increasingly available. Recent theoretical and empirical research has demonstrated that an effective mobilization of domestic savings and an efficient allocation of resources depend on the extent to which the private sector can obtain loans. It is argued that loans extended to the private sector promote investment and productivity growth to a much greater extent than do credits to the public sector. An increase in the ratio of private credit to GDP (PCGDP) can be interpreted as a sign of more financial services and thus as an improvement in financial intermediation. The recent empirical literature on the role of financial intermediation in economic development has highlighted the suitability of this indicator to measure the level of financial sector's development (see, for example, De Gregorio and Guidotti (1995); Demetriades and Hussein (1996); Levine and Zervos (1998); and Beck and Levine (2004)). In addition, as De Gregorio and Guidotti (1995) argued, private credit has an obvious advantage over measures of monetary aggregates such as M1, M2, and M3 since it more precisely represents the actual quantity of funds directed to the private sector. Thus, our second measure of financial sector's development is the ratio of private credit to GDP (PCGDP). The level of interest rates affect people's behaviour by affecting economic decisions with regard to how much people are willing to save, and how much businesses are willing to invest. An informative indicator of a banking system's success in intermediating funds between savers and investors is the spread between deposit and lending rates (De Nicolo et al. 2003). Thus spread (SPRD) can be used as an indicator of the efficiency of the financial sector. We expect a negative sign of this coefficient in our model, because a fall in the value of this indicator represents an increase in efficiency and may results higher economic growth. Hence, in this study we include two indicators namely M2GDP and PCGDP as a measure of financial sector's development and one indicator SPRD as a measure of financial sector's efficiency to proxy FD variable in our model. We perform the analysis on three data sets (i) a cross-section of ninety-eight countries that includes twenty-six developed and seventytwo developing countries, (ii) a cross-section of sixty-four developing countries and, (iii) a crosssection of twenty six developed countries. The data that have been used in this analysis are annual covering the period from 2001-2005. This is the latest period up to which all data are available in complete form. The data come from the World Bank's World Development Indicators database. The selection of countries is based on data availability on all variables from this source. Countries are grouped into four groups: lower, lower-middle, upper-middle and highincome depending on the relative ranking of their income per capita in the middle of the sample period.6 We use two groups since much of the policy literature discusses country difference in terms of developed and developing countries.7 For further motivation, Table 1 reports macroeconomic and financial indicators for the sub-samples of countries, which we later use in the econometric analysis. Table 1 shows that output growth was substantially slower in lowincome countries: 5.61 % in lower-income, 4.58% in lower middle-income, 4.39% in upper middle-income and 3.95% in high-income countries. Investment to GDP ratio accounts is 16.45 % in lower-income, 22.08% in lower middle-income, 22.03% in upper middle-income and 21.53% in high-income countries. This difference prompts us to examine whether finance has different channels for influencing economic growth at various levels of development. Table 1 reports the average values of the two financial sector's development variables (M2 to GDP and Private Credit to GDP ratio) in the four income groups. Higher income is clearly associated with more developed financial markets across all two measures. We also analyse the financial sector's efficiency variable (Spread), which has low percentage in high-income groups. This indicates that if we reduce spread (that is, increase the efficiency of the financial sector), it may have positive effect on economic growth of low income countries. The data shows that the human capital level (Enrolment) is higher in high-income countries than in low-income countries. An increased stock of human capital raises investments in developing new technologies by expanding the education-intensive research and development. Table 2 shows the regression results of three basic models for a full sample of 98 countries. It is clear from table 1 that our first indicator of financial development (M2GDP) included in basic model 1 has the expected positive sign and is highly significant. The high value of adjusted R2 represents that model is also good fit. Our second measure of financial sectors' development (PCGDP) in the basic model 2 has the expected positive sign and is highly significant. It is clear that PCGDP variable has much stronger effect than M2GDP. Basic model 3 shows that the measure of financial sector's efficiency (SPRD) has expected sign and is highly significant. Thus, a reduction in (SPRD) that is, an increase in financial sector's efficiency has significant positive effect on economic growth. Hence, all models show that financial sector's development and financial sector's efficiency promote economic growth. Table 3 shows the regression results for a sample of 68 developing countries. It is clear from Table 2 that our first indicator of financial sector's development (M2GDP) included in basic model 1 and second measure of financial sectors' development (PCGDP) included in basic model 2 have the expected positive signs and are highly significant. It is clear that both variables have almost same effects on economic growth. In basic model 3 the measure of financial sector's efficiency (SPRD) has expected sign and is highly significant. Thus, reduction in (SPRD) that is, an increase in financial sector's efficiency has significant positive effect on economic growth of developing countries. Hence, all model models show that financial sector's development and financial sector's efficiency promote economic growth of the selected developing countries. Table 4 shows the regression results for a sample of 26 developed countries. It is clear from Table 4 that our first indicator of financial sector's development (M2GDP) included in basic model 1 and second measure of financial sectors' development (PCGDP) included in basic model 2 have the expected positive signs and are highly significant. In case of developed countries the effect of PCGDP variable is almost same to the effect of M2GDP variable. In basic model 3 the measure of financial sector's efficiency (SPRD) has expected sign but the coefficient is statistically insignificant. Hence, the first two models support the basic idea that financial sector's development promotes economic growth of the selected developed countries. 4. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS Since many factors are associated with economic growth, the empirical results on the relationship between one factor and economic growth is not always robust. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the robustness of the results reported in section 3. The question of how much confidence could be placed on the conclusions was addressed by Levine and Renelt (1992) that use a modified version of the Extreme Bond Analysis (EBA) originally developed by Leamer (1985). A slightly modified version of EBA approach is used, hereby, considering the following model.8 Y^sub t^ = ?^sub 0^ + ?^sub 1^I^sub t^ + ?^sub 2^M^sub t^ + ?^sub 3^Z^sub t^ + ?^sub t^ Where 'Y' is the real GDP per capita, 'I' is a set of variables that are commonly included in the regression, 'M' is the variable of particular interest and 'Z' is a set of variables chosen from a pool of variables and ?^sub t^ is the white noise error term. In our case, 'I' or basic variable is the ratio of investment to GDP (IGDP)9, the 'M' variable is the variable of interest, which is the financial sector's development and financial sector's efficiency. The 'Z' variable are selected as follows: (i) openness (OPE), (ii) the ratio of Foreign Direct Investment to GDP (FDI), (iii) Inflation (INF), and (iv) life expectancy at birth (LEXP).10 The results of sensitivity analysis are shown in the Table 5 for a full sample of 98 developing and developed countries. It is clear that our focus variable (financial sector's development) is significant and positive in both models no matter what combination of other variables are included in the modified models. Thus, it is confirmed that financial sector's development has robust positive effect on economic growth of the countries. Table 6 shows the results of sensitivity analysis for a group of sixty four developing countries. In case of the modified model 1, the coefficient of the focus variable remains positive in all cases except when the life expectancy variable is included in the model. However, the results are not statistically significant. Modified model II shows that the focus variable remain positive and statistically significant in all cases except in case of life expectancy where the variable has opposite sign but statistically insignificant. Thus, the results are fragile in case of modified model I but robust in case of modified model II. Table 7 shows the results of sensitivity analysis for a group of twenty six developed countries. In case of the modified model 1 the coefficient of focus variable remains positive and highly significant when openness variable is included and remains positive but statistically insignificant when INF and FDI are included in the model. The focus variable changes its sign when life expectancy variable is included in the model. The modified model II shows that the focus variable remains positive and highly significant in case of all variables except when life expectancy variable in included, where it has appropriate positive sing but is statistically insignificant. Thus, the results are fragile in case of modified model I but robust in case of modified model II. 5. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS This paper offers a broad analysis of the effect of financial sector's development and financial sector's efficiency on economic growth for a large cross section of countries. We also did the same analysis for a group of developing and developed countries. The evidence presented in this paper provides strong and robust support to the view that financial sector's development is crucial for economic growth and the efficiency of the financial sector is potentially important for the long term growth performance of the countries. Given this positive relation, the importance of financial sector development should not be underestimated and has to be one of the main strategies to achieve sustainable economic growth in the long term. Building sound and stable financial sectors requires; liberalization of the financial system, adoption of the internationally acceptable codes and standards, strengthening of prudential regulation and supervision and training of the staff to manage and regulate these institutions. Footnote 1 In the literature, this direction of causality is often referred to as the "supply-leading hypothesis". 2 The overall impact of higher returns on the savings rate depends on the relative strength of the implied income and substitution effects that work in different directions. 3 This is known as "stage of development hypothesis". Supply-leading financial development is a key determinant of real economic growth in the early stages of development, whereas at later stages financial development mainly follows real growth. 4 These indicators were (i) the ratio of liquid liabilities to GDP; (ii) ratio of deposit money bank assets to total assets; (iii) the ratio of non financial private sector credit to total credit; and (iv) ratio of claims on the non financial private sector to GDP. 5 Turnover ratio was measured as value of the trades of domestic shares on domestic exchange divided by the value of listed domestic share. 6 According to the income classification by World Bank, Economies are divided among income groups according to 2006 gross national income (GNI) per capita, calculated using the World Bank Atlas method. The groups are: low income, $905 or less; lower middle income, $906-3,595; upper middle income, $3,596-11,115; and high income, $11,116 or more. 7 Low-income and middle-income economies are sometimes referred to as developing economies. The use of the term is convenient; it is not intended to imply that all economies in the group are experiencing similar development or that other economies have reached a preferred or final stage of development. 8 The EBA involves varying the Z variable to determine whether the coefficient on the focus variable, M is consistently significant and of the same sign when right hand side variables change. 9 Levine & Renalt (1992) and Temple (1999) have included this variable in their regression. 10 Levine & Renalt (1992) used inflation and openness, Hermes & Lensink (2003) and Alfaro et al. (2004) used FDI and Barro (1991) used mortality rate in their growth regression.
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The purpose of the Annotated Bibliography assignment is to allow you to gain experience gathering research in public safety as well as gather resources that you can use throughout the course. Your resources can be gathered from peer-reviewed journals, government reports, and reports from the Government Accountability Office (GAO). In your Annotated Bibliography assignment: •Locate at least one resource for each of the following topics: ?Bioterrorism. ?Cyberterrorism. ?Agricultural terrorism. ?Hydrological terrorism. ?Economic terrorism or the affects of terrorism on economics. •For each resource: ?Provide a brief synopsis of the article. ?Summarize the threat by examining the likelihood and consequences of the type of terror attack discussed in the article. ?Your synopsis and examination should be at least 150 words.
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What is the evolution and impact of religion in acts of terrorism?
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Prepare a post which addresses the following questions: •What is the role of socioeconomics in contemporary terrorism? •How is religion integrated into a socioeconomic framework of terrorism?
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For this assignment, you will select a domestic terrorist group and present preliminary background information on the group. Complete the following: 1.Select a domestic terrorist group from the list provided or one of your own. If you provide one of your own, you must develop a detailed description to submit to your instructor for approval. 2.Analyze your selected group using the ETHICS acronym shown below to guide your research as you gather preliminary background information about your selected group. Two ETHICS templates are provided for you under Resources, one using a table and one without a table. 3.Analyze how your selected group fits the definition of a domestic terrorist group. 4.Analyze the development of your selected group. 5.Analyze U.S. Intelligence Community strategy in relation to your selected group. 6.Analyze the roles and responsibilities of the members of the intelligence community in relation to intelligence gathering about your selected group. ETHICS Acronym •E = Existence: Is the group or the organizational structure, currently active? •T = Targeting: What have been targets in the past? Is there a pattern? Has the group or organization ever deviated from their pattern? •H = History: Chronology of major activity. Are there any trends or deviation from previous activity or pattern? •I = Intent: What is the group’s mission? What do they purport to believe? What do they threaten to do? Are they considered dangerous? •C = Capability: Can they follow through with threats? Do they have the resources and knowledge to do what they say they are going to do? •S = Security posture: How closed is the group? Can the group be infiltrated?
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In this unit’s resources, you were given information about protection of sources and methods. Discuss why sources and methods should be protected. Does classification harm information sharing, especially high-level classification? Support your answer with references.
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In your case as an educator or counselor? you believe that the roots would be with electronic games and tolerance?
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the topic is how did Sept 11 effect oil trade between US and Middle East 1 page - Introduction and background to the Problem - include thesis statement 1 page - Issues - What are at least three-four issues within the problem? 3 pages - Research and Analysis Pages Attached is my outline to follow
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FIRST OBSERVATION – ENVIRONMENT: You MUST observe any preschool of your choice. Draw a map of the school setting and how it is set up. DON’T FORGET THE OUTSIDE AREA. YOU MUST USE ONE FULL PAGE FOR THE INSIDE AND ONE FULL PAGE FOR THE OUTSIDE. BE SURE TO LABEL ALL AREAS. (ex. Do not say stable, shelves-tell us what’s on them. Look for restrooms, fountains, teacher areas, etc.). SECOND OBSERVATION – TEACHER’S ROLE: You MUST observe any preschool of your choice. Write down 5 interactions between the Teacher(s) / Child(ren) that you think were positive and why you think that. And also 5 interactions that you think could have been improved upon and why and HOW YOU WOULD IMPROVE THEM.
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Please follow the professor instructions and look at the two of the sample assignments (Because I’m Muslim, he strongly suggest me to examine the passages from Genesis.) the paper due tomorrow after 1:00 PM. I’m counting on you. Thank you.
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University of Phoenix Material Interview a Senior Citizen This required Portfolio assignment will give you experience observing and interacting with people outside of the classroom. It has been designed to provide you with the opportunity to develop skills, synthesize knowledge, and integrate learning in a real world setting. This assignment accomplishes that goal by challenging you to: • conduct a semi-structured interview with an elderly individual • analyze his/her responses in a systematic manner • integrate this real-world experience with your knowledge of the aging process based on evidence from journal articles and other scholarly sources. Read the following articles on the behavioral determinants of healthy aging. The full-text articles are available in the Week Five Electronic Reserve Readings: • Hartman-Stein, P. E., & Potkanowicz, E. S. (2003). Behavioral Determinants of Healthy Aging: Good News for the Baby Boomer Generation. Online Journal Of Issues In Nursing, 8(2), 127-146. • Potkanowicz, E. S., Hartman-Stein, P., & Biermann, J. S. (2009). Behavioral Determinants of Health Aging Revisited: An Update on the Good News for the Baby Boomer Generation. Online Journal Of Issues In Nursing, 14(3), 11. • Masotti, P. J., Fick, R., Johnson-Masotti, A., & MacLeod, S. (2006). Healthy naturally occurring retirement communities: A low-cost approach to facilitating healthy aging. American Journal of Public Health, 96 (7), 1164-1170. Identify a senior citizen (age 65 or older) and schedule an hour to talk with him/her face to face. Be sure to tell the person that you are completing the interview as part of a class assignment and that the content of the interview is completely confidential (no names will be used). Conduct an informal interview, focusing on the participant’s health and wellness. When interviewing the individual, ask questions that correspond to the following categories: • Physical activity, past and present: Ask about exercise routines as well as ordinary activities that involve physical exertion such as yard work, house cleaning, walking, and so on. Try to determine whether or not the participant has maintained an active lifestyle over the years. • Mentally stimulating activities, past and present: Ask the participant what he/she does to stay sharp. This might include card games, crossword puzzles, reading, taking courses, and so on. Try to determine the extent to which the participant has challenged him/herself to engage in ongoing, active learning. • Social support and social interactions: Ask the participant about his/her social contacts, past and present. This could include his/her spouse or partner, friends, relatives, social clubs, social activities, etc. Try to determine whether the participant has a strong base of social support. • Meaningful activities: What gives life meaning? Ask the participant to recall his/her most meaningful activities and ask if he/she is still engaged in such activities. This will vary from person to person but could include helping others, teaching younger people, religious or spiritual activities, giving back to his/her community, sharing talents or skills, creative activities, and so on. Your task is to determine if the participant is still actively engaged in activities that matter to him/her. • Recreational/leisure activities: What does the participant do for fun? Try to get a sense of what he/she still enjoys and how frequently he/she participates in enjoyable activities. • Living environment. What is the individual’s home environment like? Does he/she live in a retirement community? If so, what is it like? Does he/she still drive? If not, how does the individual manage transportation challenges such as running routine errands, getting to doctor’s appointments and attending social events? What environmental challenges does he/she face? Try to keep the interview process light and fun. Focus on what the participant is doing well. Part I: Document the questions you asked and the participant’s responses. This is your interview ‘transcript’ which will be turned in along with your reflective paper. Part II: Write a 1,000-word reflective paper based on the interview. In your paper, include a discussion on the following points: • Most notable aspects of the interview: What topics did your interviewee respond most strongly to and why? • Most surprising aspects of the interview: Did any of the interviewee’s responses surprise you? Explain. • A commentary about the participant’s overall functioning: Use the information from the required readings to make a general assessment of the participant’s health and well-being. Would you use the term ‘healthy aging’ to describe the participant? Why or why not? What is he/she doing well? What areas could use improvement? What suggestions would you make, based on your knowledge of the determinants of healthy aging? • A discussion of what you learned from this experience. Use the literature in gerontology, wisdom, and successful aging to supplement your paper and support your points. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines and be sure to cite your sources in a reference section at the end of your paper.
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Article submitted as a pdf file. This is an article review type paper which needs to follow the directions below: *Paragraph 1: List the topic that you have chosen. Describe the economic concept that is the basis of your topic in full. Define all terms, including relevant economic and /or econometric models, and explain how the concept is relevant to environmental decision-making. *Paragraph 2: Summarize the main topic of the article, the argument made and the conclusions reached. Describe the article’s application to environmental and natural resource economics. *Paragraph 3: Assess the validity of the author’s conclusions or research performed. Does the article represent valid interpretation and application of the concepts? Outline the costs, revenues, accounting, reports and other financial aspects that you would consider or implement to improve the environmental or natural resources economic issue. *Paragraph 4: Assess the implications of the article for other related areas of environmental decision-making.
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What are the physiological effects of a bioterror attack that can impede first and secondary responders?
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After reviewing Chapter 9 in the Buck text, discuss the best government agency—police, fire, public health—that should command the scene of a bioterror incident. Be sure to include other research to support your choice.
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In this assignment, you will further research your domestic terrorist group. Complete the following: Review the “INTs” discussed in Unit 2. Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the five major collection methods in relation to your selected group. Explain which of these intelligence collection methods you might use to gather information about your domestic group. Explain what you would expect to gain. Analyze any potential constitutional conflict. Analyze the general US national security and public policy, including the Patriot Act, regarding intelligence collection and dissemination in relation to your selected group. Requirements for your paper are as follows: Length of paper: 2–3 typed, double-spaced pages (not including the title page, table of contents, abstract, and references). Parts of paper: Title page: Include the title of paper, your name, the name of the class, the date of submission, and the name of your instructor. Body: 2–3 typed, double-spaced pages. Resources: Include a complete list of references, including books, Web sites, articles, and other resources. Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. Your paper should demonstrate graduate-level writing skills. APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to APA Style and Formatting guidelines. Submit your Collection Methods paper in the assignments area.
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In J. G. Heidenrich's “The State of Strategic Intelligence: The Intelligence Community's Neglect of Strategic Intelligence” article (linked under Resources), Heidenrich emphasizes that strategic intelligence and the need for time to think and develop a deep understanding of the adversary is extremely important. Do you agree or disagree? Do you believe that a tactical approach in times of asymmetrical conflict is more important? Why or why not? Support your answer with references. Response Guidelines
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I will upload the peer-reviewed journal articles for this paper.
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I will upload the scholarly article for this case study.
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One page essay on topic of your choice. Times new Roman, 12 pt. font, double spaced.
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I will upload the scholarly articles for this case study please have ready by 1/27/13
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my rough draft is due tommorrow . heres my outline Title: Fashion isn’t meant to be faked! 1. Introduction A. Style piracy and Deceptive counterfeiting B. Fashion industry sales C. Thesis: There should be zero tolerance for deceptive counterfeiting of fashion designer’s clothing because fashion is an art, it is interferes with the designer name and can reduce sales. 2. Topic sentence: Fashion is a type of art and should not be copied. A. When fashion is created a designer has there own personal artistic process. 1. “The fashion press employs fine artists to illustrate the designs of the day.” 2. Personal resources and personal experiences help designer have a unique style to offer. “Coco Chanel drew on the resources of these patrons in setting up a millinery shop in Paris in 1910, expanding to Deauville and Biarritz. The two men also helped her find customers among women of society, and her simple hats became popular.” B. Counterfeiters profit off of other’s hard work a. Inspiration is not the same as counterfeiting. “Buying counterfeit goods is like giving generously to crime. It has been estimated tat the cost to the UK economy alone of counterfeit goods is at least, 2.8 billion both in terms of the amount of goods sold and the loss to legitimate manufacturers (ACG, 2001). 3. Topic Sentence: Counterfeiting interferes with designer’s name. A. Designers name is important to their work. B. Names can be connected to quality 1. “Self-concept is important because consumers select products and brands that fit or match their images of themselves or the image they would like others to see (Solomon, 1983). The more congruent the brand’s image and consumer’s self-image, the more it can induce consumers to purchase that particular brand (Graeff, 1996). A study by Mintel (2001) identified that consumers increasingly believe that designer brands improve self-image.” 2. People want high quality names to prove them self worthy. “One characteristics that makes human unique is our ability to examine ourselves, to find ourselves lacking, and to attempt self-betterment. This sense of incompleteness drives us not merely to create, but also to self-create, and we consume goods and services in the process (pg. 412)." 3. Counterfeiting affects sales due to trust/reputation 4. Topic sentence: Deceptive counterfeiting does not completely increase sales and competition. A. The designer does not get the credit unless created it. 1.” By purchasing fake bags, you are hurting the designers and the manufacturers. The time, effort and creativity put into producing a bag are extensive, from the initial sketches through the time it goes on the shelves. Additionally, if designers and brands constantly have to spend money in court protecting their designs, the cost of their bags will rise too.” B. When something is rare, there may be a higher a demand. Topic Sentence: There are many ways to avoid counterfeiting fashion so that the designers maintain their artwork. A. Buying used designer clothing is cheaper and always in style. 1. Save money while allowing designers to maintain originality. 2.” Going to a thrift store is sort of like digging for treasure in that you never know what you will uncover. In today’s fast paced world where everybody wants something new now, many people are simply dumping off lots of really cool fashions at their local thrift shops. While fast pace may be for them, perhaps it is not so much for you and for this reason you may want to consider shopping a thrift stores.” B. Buy similar styles and trends with good quality not the same name C. Some designers have made cheaper collections but similar quality. References: Fashion and Art. (n.d.). The A. & L. TIROCCHI DRESSMAKERS PROJECT. Retrieved January 20, 2013, from http://tirocchi.stg.brown.edu/514/story/fashion_art.html Hart, S., Hogg, G., & Hoe, L. (n.d.). Fakin’ It: Counterfeiting and Consumer Contradictions by Lee Hoe, Gillian Hogg, and Susan Hart. Association for Consumer Research. Retrieved January 20, 2013, from http://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=11444 Lewis, J. J. (n.d.). Coco Chanel. Women's History - Comprehensive Research and Information Guide. Retrieved January 20, 2013, from http://womenshistory.about.com/od/chanelcoco/a/coco_chanel.htm Reasons Why You Shouldn't Buy a Fake Designer Handbag - Why You Shouldn't Buy Fake Bags. (n.d.). Accessories - Latest Trends, Accessory Advice, Shopping Tips. Retrieved January 20, 2013, from http://accessories.about.com/od/shoeshandbags/tp/fake-designer-handbags.htm The Ethics of Counterfeiting in the Fashion Industry: Quality, Credence and Profit Issues - Springer. (n.d.). Home - Springer. Retrieved January 20, 2013, from http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10551-004-0989-8 i need more details and quotes and statics etc. apa form for all the resources you add . You only have to due the 2. topic sentence and the 3. topic sentence since each of my three main points must be a page long . Please include in my intro the three main points . thank you
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A. Analyze a selected topic from a social scientific perspective by doing the following: 1. Explain the significance of a suitable question, which you have formulated, for social scientific analysis. 2. Analyze 3 research problems that will help answer the social scientific question that you have formulated. ( Explain the social scientific analysis required for each of the 3 research problems.) 3. Consider the extent to which your chosen topic question can be examined by the application of the scientific method by doing the following: A. Discuss the scientific method as understood in the natural or physical sciences. B. Compare the research methods required for your formulated question to the scientific method as understood in the natural or physical sciences. C. Discuss whether a social science perspective must rely on the scientific method in the same way that natural or physical science would. NO PLAGIARISM!! APA Format..
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A: To receive full credit (100 points), this essay should be at least 700 words. All questions in this essay should be clearly and thoroughly answered. Your essay should show evidence of research beyond the text. B: You may answer all but one question but the word count must be at least 700 words. C: You must answer all but one queston less than asked and your word count may be as low as 600 words D: You must answer all but one question and your word count may be as low as 550 words. F: Anything less than what has been stated above. Be sure to add your word count at the bottom of the essay in this format: WC 750. Please keep in mind that I am looking for work that has been plagiarized. ____________________________________________________ Please write a MUSICAL biography of both Bach and Handel. What musical forms did each specialize in? What did each of these two musician/composers bring to music that was not present prior to their arrival? What waere the endearing marks that each left on music history?
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our paper should be four pages long, double spaced, Times New Roman or equivalent font. You should not use more than two lines with your heading. To get full credit, your paper should demonstrate a well rounded knowledge of the basic elements of music and your ability to apply those concepts to Baroque music. I will be looking for the use of appropriate vocabulary words, music terminology and a general understanding of the Baroque Era music. Papers that use excessive headings will docked as well as papers that are any amount less than four pages. Grades will not be docked for going over four pages.1) Describe the circumstances surrounding the composition of Bach’s BrandenburgConcertos. 2) Discuss the form of the fugue, the various terms involved, and ways in which the subject can be varied. 3) Discuss the form and general character of Vivaldi’s Spring Concerto.
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Topic dysmenorrhea Find a case study and comprehensive differential diagnosis, medications, assessment, diagnostic and treatment plan of a patient with dysmenorrhea. Please begin with a brief overview with statement of importance and impact on Women’s Health. Please focus this paper on prevention, screening, diagnosis and management of dysmenorrhea which affects Women’s Health and is related to a Healthy People 2020 objective. All required components must be thoroughly supported by scholarly journal references within the required publication date from 2009-2012.This paper must conform to APA format 6th ed. Including title page, in-text citations and references. Please include the related Healthy People 2020 objective factors that may influence dysmenorrhea such as culture, literacy, disparity, access and economics, etc. This paper has to be evidence based recommendations for the prevention, screening, diagnosis and management of dysmenorrhea across all ages which are impacted by the disease such as childhood, adolescence, adult, older adult and frail elderly females. Please include a differential diagnosis, medications, assessment, diagnostic and treatment plan of a patient with dysmenorrhea and the role of the advanced practice nurse in the management of this disorder/disease. Finally, the recommendation for comprehensive health management and illness prevention. Please demonstrate a graduate level of writing skills including, appropriate spelling, punctuation, grammar, organization, clarity of thought and conformity to APA 6th ed. Note: This paper must include: Title Page Abstract In-text Citations References must be from evidence-based scholarly, peer reviewed journals 2009-2012
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Please formulate Picot questions on hypertension with four references from evidence-based scholarly, peer reviewed journals 2009-2012
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Choose a consumer product or service that is on the market today, but is declining in appeal to consumers. This product should be marked for “obsolesces.” Write a five to six (5-6) page paper in which you: Discuss this product or service in terms of its current target market demographics using U.S. Census Data. Determine why you believe the product or service is declining in popularity. Be sure to include information on social, demographic, and ethnic markets; economic and technological factors; political and legal factors; and competitive factors. Make three (3) recommendations for possible action marketers of the product or service you selected could take to address the product’s declining appeal to consumers. Determine the best foreign country in which to market this product or service. Support your response with information from the CIA world factbook. Discuss your product segmentation and positioning ideas for this product or service in its debut in the new country. Use at least two (2) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources
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Choose a consumer product or service that is on the market today, but is declining in appeal to consumers
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Choose a consumer product or service that is on the market today, but is declining in appeal to consumers. This product should be marked for “obsolesces.” Write a five to six (5-6) page paper in which you: Discuss this product or service in terms of its current target market demographics using U.S. Census Data. Determine why you believe the product or service is declining in popularity. Be sure to include information on social, demographic, and ethnic markets; economic and technological factors; political and legal factors; and competitive factors. Make three (3) recommendations for possible action marketers of the product or service you selected could take to address the product’s declining appeal to consumers. Determine the best foreign country in which to market this product or service. Support your response with information from the CIA world factbook. Discuss your product segmentation and positioning ideas for this product or service in its debut in the new country. Use at least two (2) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources
Number of Pages: 6
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Number of Sources: 3
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Choose a consumer product or service that is on the market today, but is declining in appeal to consumers. This product should be marked for “obsolesces.” Write a five to six (5-6) page paper in which you: Discuss this product or service in terms of its current target market demographics using U.S. Census Data. Determine why you believe the product or service is declining in popularity. Be sure to include information on social, demographic, and ethnic markets; economic and technological factors; political and legal factors; and competitive factors. Make three (3) recommendations for possible action marketers of the product or service you selected could take to address the product’s declining appeal to consumers. Determine the best foreign country in which to market this product or service. Support your response with information from the CIA world factbook. Discuss your product segmentation and positioning ideas for this product or service in its debut in the new country. Use at least two (2) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources
Number of Pages: 6
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Number of Sources: 3
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In November 2001, letters laced with anthrax were sent via U.S. Mail to New York City and Washington, D.C. Use this event as a case study to analyze the impact and response of a bioterror attack on the United States. Your Bioterrorism Case Study analysis should: Analyze the consequences of the 2001 Anthrax attacks. Be sure to include economic impacts in your analysis. Analyze how the consequences of another attack, using similar or different methods, would differ. Evaluate the countermeasures and protections used during the response to the 2001 Anthrax attacks. Identify and describe any best management practices determined as a result of or exemplified in the incident response. Based on current research, evaluate the likelihood of a biological weapons attack on the US. Consider both an attack that is similar to the 2001 Anthrax attacks and other possible bioterror methods.
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Review the Biological Terrorism Stakeholders Group (BTSG) and discuss who you believe should be added and why.
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Consider the local area near your residence. What are the most vulnerable areas for a bioterror attack and why? What is the likelihood of an attack on the identified areas? Please provide enough detail to aid your peer in determining possible protections. my area is Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
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Improv Everywhere’s Web site states “Improv Everywhere causes scenes of chaos and joy in public places.” The group staged an event in Grand Central Station in New York City. If you have not yet viewed the video, click on the “Frozen Grand Central” link under Mission Highlights on the group’s Web site linked under Resources. Answer the following questions in your response: What would the group have to do to cross the line and go beyond first amendment protection? (Are events like this protected under Bill of Rights?) What would they have to do to be considered a terrorist group? Would Improv Everywhere be viewed differently if all the members were of an ethnic group associated with past terrorist attacks? Is the event a hazard to public safety? Have viewpoints on this type of activity changed in recent times? Which member of the intelligence community would have responsibility for this type of event?
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Select one of the following domestic threats and define including the mission, vision, and organizational structure. Would you classify your choice as dangerous? Patriotic? Criminal? Eco-terrorists. Lone wolf or single issue terrorists. Left-wing terrorists. Right-wing terrorists.
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Critical Thinking Assignments Critical thinking assignments (CTAs) are meant to encourage you to think more deeply about certain important concepts in psychology. There is no guarantee that anything you read in a psychology textbook, journal article, web site, newspaper or on television is true. In fact, it is likely that much of it is probably false. For that reason, the ability to separate the plausible and the likely from the implausible and the unlikely is an important one for an educated person to have. Objective The goal is for you to demonstrate knowledge of concepts and your ability to analyze them in the context they are presented. The critical thinking assignments involve submitting written work in Microsoft Word via the course web site. Please pay careful attention to the process and the format. Grading Criteria Each assignment is worth 25 points. CTAs will be graded on the basis of accuracy, completeness, thoughtfulness, and critical thinking skill. The work you do must be your own. You may discuss the assignments with others, but the work you turn in must be your own original thoughts. Format 1. Assignments must be submitted on time in order to receive full credit 2. Unless explicitly stated to the contrary, assignments should be word-processed, about one page, that’s approximately 400 - 500 words (not appreciably longer or shorter than that), double-spaced, in a 10- or 12- point non-decorative typeface (Times New Roman, Calibri, Ariel, etc.), with maximum 1-inch margins on all sides. 3. Your full name should be in the top left corner; underneath your name should be the assignment number (Unit 1 Assignment). You do not need a title and do not repeat the question or prompt – just begin with your reflection or reaction. 4. Your document should be saved with one of the accepted file extensions. They are: MS-Word (.doc or .docx); rich text format (.rtf); or text file (.txt). These are the only document formats you may attach you may submit with your assignment. Do NOT include any punctuation or symbols in the name of the file that you attach. Critical Thinking Assignment: Good or Bad Evidence? You are undertaking a research study because you want to know why teenagers have more difficulty focusing their attention early in the morning than do younger children. Treat each of the items listed below as a different type of evidence intended to address this question. Complete the following: 1. Rank order the pieces of evidence listed below from most convincing to least convincing. By convincing I mean how well does the evidence answer the question "why do teenagers have more difficulty focusing their attention early in the morning than do younger children?" 2. Explain why you ranked the different types of evidence in the order you selected. 3. Identify those pieces of evidence listed below, if any, from which you believe a conclusion can be drawn about why teenagers have more difficulty focusing their attention early in the morning than do younger children. Briefly explain. Evidence: a. You have overheard many teenagers talking about why they struggle with paying attention early in the morning, so you believe you have a good understanding of why they have such difficulty. b. 30 well-designed studies published in prestigious journals have discovered that melatonin, a hormone involved in sleep, is secreted by the body of teenagers at a different point in the sleep-wake cycle than it is for young children or adults. c. A nutrition expert, appearing on Good Morning America, stated that she believes teenagers have more difficulty focusing their attention than younger children because, as she learned in her interviews with students of all ages, the teenagers were more likely to skip breakfast. d. Your cousin has a hunch. e. 20 well-controlled experiments published in prestigious journals strongly suggest a cause for why teenagers have more difficulty focusing their attention early in the morning than do younger children. f. After a recent airing of a story on the news show Dateline on NBC about some people being morning people and others being night people, Channel 5 asked viewers to call in the reasons they have difficulty focusing attention in the morning. Two reasons were given most frequently, and those reasons were presented on that night's local news. g. Two well-controlled experiments published in a prestigious journal suggest a cause for why teenagers have more difficulty focusing their attention early in the morning than do younger children. (Major Hint: I am rather partial to the phrase "alternative explanations")
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position MUST be taken (i'm all FOR it)-one strong thesis and introduction-3rd person-(2) data based citations + 2 citations from published people-at least ACKNOWLEDGE opposition-qualifiable numbers & statistics-current within 1-2 years-topic is argument & persuasion :citizens over the age of 65 should be required to pass a driving education course before receiving a license to drive
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